A Clear Differentiation of the Three Codes: Essential by Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltshen, Jared Douglas Rhoton

By Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltshen, Jared Douglas Rhoton

A transparent Differentiation of the 3 Codes offers the 1st English translation of the sDom gsum rab dbye, probably the most recognized and debatable doctrinal treatises of Tibetan Buddhism. Written by way of Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltshen (1182–1251), a founding father of the Sakya tuition and one among Tibet’s so much discovered sages, the 3 Codes strongly motivated next non secular and highbrow traditions in Tibet—and sparked a few long-lasting doctrinal and philosophical disputes, a few of which persist this day. within the 3 Codes, Sakya Pandita discusses the Hinayana, Mahayana, and Tantric vows of Buddhist behavior, which regularly diverge and contradict one another. He criticizes, on not less than one element or one other, later practitioners of just about each lineage, together with the Kadampa, Kagyupa, and Nyingmapa, for contradicting the unique teachings in their personal traditions.

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Extra info for A Clear Differentiation of the Three Codes: Essential Distinctions among the Individual Liberation, Great Vehicle, and Tantric Systems

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CelebratedHinduloglCianfr0品、SOuthIndia,WherehehadalreadYdefeatedBud dhistsindebate−determinedtogotoTibettochallengeltSauthor・ Whateverthecasemayhavebeen,allthesources,includingsomethatar nearlYCOntemPOrary,reCOrdthatthedebate’soutcomewasaresoundingdef邑atfor Harinanda,Whoabandonedhisformercreed,CutOffhisascetic’stopknot,and tookordinationfromSapanashisBuddhistdisciple・Sapanwrotesomeversesin commemorationofthisvictory,Whicharepreservedamonghiswritings(s detailsofthedebatearealsogiveninGorampa’sbiographY)・44Certainlaterhisto− rians,includingtheFifthDalaiLama,relatethatafterhisdefeatHarihandaat temptedtoescapeconversionbYflyingoffthroughtheairandthatlater,uPOnen− terlngTibet,hewaski11edbythe twelveguardian goddesses appointed Padmasambhava.45Theseandotherdetailsfound、inpopularaccountsofthecon− testarenotglVenbYGorampa,WhomaYnOthaveknownthemorwhopossiblY consideredthemtobefancifu1. AttheCourtoftheMongoIPrinceK6den InI244,5apan1eftSakYaforLiang−ChouinKansu,inresponsetoasummon fromtheMongoIprinceK6den(“Godan”intheTibetansources),thegrandson ofGenghisKhanandsecondsonoftheMongolkhanOg6dei・Itwasamiss thatwouldradicallYalterthecourseofTibetanhistory,1neXtricablYinvoIvin Tibetinthecomplexpoliticala免irsofitsnorthernandeasternneighbors,Mon− goliaandChina・ TheeventsthatthrustSapanintotheroleofdiplomatarenotrecordedinde− tailbYtheTibetansourcesandaredif丘culttosortout,glVenthedearthofcon− temporarYSOurCeS.Accordi孟gtosomelaterTibetanhistorians,inI206centra TibetwasinvadedbYtrOOPSunderthecommandofGenghisKhan,PrOmPtlnga delegationofTibetanSWhosulmittedtoenvoYSOfthekhanandagreedtode− mandsfortribute.WhentheTibetansceasedpaymgthistributefo1lowlngthe deathofGenghisKhaninI2・2,7,relationswiththeMongoIsbecamestrained,a cordingtothistradition,Whichfurtherrelatesthat,inI240,thirtYthousandMon− goltroopsreachedPhanpo,nOrthofLhasa,WheretheYburnedRadrengandG Lhakhangmonasteries,killingandlootlngfivehundredmonksandciviliansin thevicinlty・46 TheaccountsofaninvasioninthetimeofGenghisseemtohavenohistorical basis.47Nevertheless,itislikelYthataMongolexpeditionarYforcedispatch PrinceK6dendidpenetratecentralTibetinI240,CauSlnggreatdamagelnPlaces・ InI2・39K6denhadbeengrantedanappanage)uSteaStOfAmdoinadistricto westernChinacalledChangng6bYTibetanwriters・Itmaywellhavebeenthe ム〟r(〉〟JJ√血JJ Ⅰ7 abbotofRadreng,theKadamPamOthermonastery,WhorecommendedSapanto theraidingM9ngOIsastheforemostTibetanreliglOuSteaCheroftheday・49 TheMongoIseventuallYfounditconvenienttoadministerTibetthrougha governmentthatincludedbothsecular(militarY/political)andeccleciasticele− ments.Itbecameestablishedpolicy,eSPeCiallYtWOdecadeslater,afterthetimeo QpbilaiandSapan’snephewPhakpa,tOfavortheSakYaPa(Sapan’ssuccessors) WithpatronageandmilitarYbacking・ Sincetheco11apseofitsroYaldYnaStYinthemid−ninthcentury,Tibethadfor centurieslackedastrongcentralauthority・Duringthatperiodtheinfluenceofthe OldnoblefamiliesalsolargelYdisappeared,rePlacedbYClansandchie丘ainswith restrictedlocaldomains.BYthelatetwel丘hcentury,however,SeVeralnewcenters ofwiderpowerandinfluencearoseintheformofma)OrmOnaSterieswhosepa− tronswereoftenrivalsintheef払rttoincreasetheeconomicbaseandprestlgeOf theirrespectivesees.AmongthemostpowerfulofthesewerethreeKagYuPamOn− asteriesinU■:ThalGungtang(foundedinII7∼),50Drigung(ⅠⅠ79),andTuung (ⅠⅠ8∼)・ThiswasthesituationtheMongoIsfoundwhentheyfirstseriousIYCOnSid− eredanneXingTibet・Kagyupalamasfromseveralofthesegreatestablishments hadalreadYbeenactivelyteachingBuddhismamongtheTゝngutstothenorthwest intheearlYI200S,beforethatstatewasannihilatedbYtheMongoIsinI22・7,and thesetraditionswerebYnOmeanSunknowntothewell−informedMongoIsinthe SamePeriod・51 SakYa,eStablishedinIO73,WaS an Olderestablishmentamongthe“New School”monasteries,Yetinthemid−Ⅰ200Sitwasalsoanimportantcenterof wealthandpoliticalinfluence,thoughinTsangprovincetothewestofU・Never− theless,thepoliticaladvantagesofforelgnPatrOnagemaYnOthavebeenthem considerationinSapan’smindashejourneYedtoseetheMongoIprlnCe・Indeed, heseemstohavebeenreluctanttoundertakethejourneytoLiang−Chou・Ashe wroteinalettertotheKadampareligiousteacherNamkhaBum: TheseMongoIshavetoldmethatImus〔definitelYCOmetOSerVeaStheir“precep− tor”極cbodgna),andthatifIdon’tcome,anarmYwi11arrive・MYgOingwasbe− causeI鈷aredthatharmmightbefillTibetifanarmY亡urnedup・Besidesgolngln thehopethatitwillprovetobebeneficialforlivlngbeings,thereisnoassuranceof benefit.52 InearlyI247,SapanpersonallYmetPrinceK6denatthelatter’scourtfbrthefirst time・AccordingtotherelativelYlateaccountofThuukenLosangCh6kYiNYima (Ⅰ737−Ⅰ802・),hehealedtheMongoIprinceofleprosYthroughtherecitationofthe Simhanddldunl㌘i,COnferreduponhimandhisministerstheinitiationofHevajra, andconvertedthemtoMahえYえnaBuddhismthroughhissermonsandmiracles・53 Ⅰ8 ・叫:・√/ミ√畑〟′・√ユ1〟∴川′川…ノ・ InI249,K6dengaveSapantemporalauthoritYOVerUandTsang・InTibet andMongolhistories,Sapanisalsocreditedwithhavingbeguntheconversionof theMongolnationtoBuddhisよsapan}srelationshipwithPrinceK6denbecame themodelforthe“preceptor−PatrOn”侮cbodyo7urelationbetweensubsequent Tibetanreligious丘guresandMongol/Chineserulers・54WithhisdebateagalnS theIndiansageHarinandaontheNepaleseborder,hisinvitation(declined)to courtofarulersouthofTibet,intheIndianCulturalsphere,andhissuccessfu1 negotiationsatthecourtoftheMongoIprlnC占K6den,Sapanwasoneofthefirst trulYlnternationalfiguresinmedievalTibetanhistory・55 Establishinghisheadquartersatthenulpa>iDemonasterYtOtheeastofLiang− chou,SapanmuSthaveremainedactive,eCClesiasticallYandotherwise,durin finalyearsofhislife・HeiscreditedwithhavinglnVentedaMongoIscrlPtlnanat tempttofacilitatethetranslationofBuddhisttextsfromTibetan・56IntheseYearS SapanalsohadwithhimandpresumablYtaughthisdetailedexpositionofthe bodhisattvdspath,77,eEhLCidktionげtbe54geilnient「乃ubpa写勿轡gSdO・57 TheclimaxofSapan,sspiritualcareeroccurredatLiang−Chouwhen,inavisi atthebedsideofadYingman,hereceivedaprophecYtObuddhahoodfrom TmkpaGYaltshen,Virapa,andK誓やaPえda・Hisbiographersassertthat,atth verymoment,ahead−PrOtuberance毎画材becameclearlYVisibleontopofhis headandtheothermarksofperfectionappeareduponhisbody・58Itissaidthat thesethirtY−tWOSlgnShadhithertobecomevisibleonlYOnthebodiesofGautama BuddhaandN豆g叫una・ SapandiedatLiangTChouinlateI25Ⅰ,attheageofsixtY−nine・Beforedying,he gavehissixteen−Year−01dnephewPhakpaLodr6GYaltshenhisownalms−bowl,a goldimageof5akYamuni,aWhiteconch,andmanYbooksofscripture・Naminghim ashissuccessor>SapanconferreduponPhakpatheleadershipoftensoftho m。nkswiththeexhortation,“Thさtimehasnowcomeforyoutoaccomplishagreat workforthehappinessofmanybeings・RememberYOurformervows!”Onthe twenty−fi丘hday>Sapan,sbodywascremated;hisrelicswereplacedinastapaonthe groundsofthenulpa>iDemonastery・PrinceK6dendiedwithinafewYearS・59 .=.んJ′リ)餅汀′血汀ノ・り′(車ん、//りt・lイ・l′′ムT inTibetanLiterature Doctrina11y,AC滋arD伊Ymtidtionグthe乃YeeCbあゅomgsumrdbdqγ∂ad− dressesanessentialaspectofreligiouspractice:rightconduct6w7q勿竣γOdp4)・ Rightconduct,righttheorY(or”rightview”),andrightmeditation,beingpartsof theNobleEightfo1dPath,areaCCePtedbYal1BuddhistsasrequlSiteforliberation・ んけ♂ふJr〟βナノ Ⅰ夕 し Thesethreecorrespondtothethreefo1dtraining何iH勾d,b∫LlbpdgJu7q)inmoral disciplineorethics侮,ねbulkbrimリ,insight¢Y4方d,∫hes7ub),andmeditative concentration6dmddbえ吻轡施i7uenjoinedbySぇkYamuniBuddha. SapanbelievedthatBuddhismwasalreadYinastateofadvanceddecline.Ac− COrdingtohischronologicalcalculations,tOO,thedoctrinehadlessthanfifteen hundredyearsleft(fo1lowingawidespreadtraditionthattheBuddha’sreligion WOuldlastfivethousandYearS,andbasinghisownCalculationsofhowmanYYea hadelapsedsincetheBuddha’snirv叫aonthereckoningofhisuncleS6nam Tkemo)・Timeswerebadingeneral,heheld,andwhenhelookedaroundhimin thirteenth−CenturYTibet,Sapansawwhathetooktobethevitiationoftheessen− tialsofBuddhismbycertaincontemporarYTibetans・ThatperceptlOn,andthedi− rectioninwhichSapanfe1timpe11edthereby,areVividlYeXPreSSedinhisLet 妨どβ〟該妨必〃〝dβ〃‘あぁβ〝〝β∫ご Butnow,inthisAgeofDecline,theTもachingoftheSagehasalmostvanished;just astheAbhidbdrmako血predicted,ithasbecomedisarraYedbYthoseoffusenotions. EspeciallytheBuddhistDoctrineofthisnorthernLandofSnowshasbecomeper− vadedbYthedarknessoffalsenotions. Mostmonksherehavelittlelearnlng,andtheYWhoarelearnedlackdiligence・ Mostwhoarediligentintheirvowsarelittlerespected,Whiletheywhoarerespected havelittlediligenceintheirvows・Patronshavescan亡faithintheTbaching,andthe Of転ringsofthefaithfu1areinferior・Thoseo脆ringsarethingsobtainedthrough WrOnglivelihood・Yetpractitionersofreligionwhodeclineo鮎ringscoming丘om wronglivelihoodareinasorrYSltuation. EventheYWhohavefiithintheBuddha’sDoctrinetossawaYlikefilthYStraWthe WOndrousBuddhistscrlPtureSOfthethreebasicscrlPturalcollectionsandfourtan− tras・WithevengreaterdevotionthantowardtheSage’sWord,theYholdtothefilse wordsoftheignorant.60 IntheBuddhistsBtrasandtreatises,Sapanfoundpassagesthatconfirmedh inhisconvictionthatareasoned,Criticalapproachwasindispensableforte theDharma・Inthesameworkhequotesafamousstatementattributedtothe Buddha:“MonksorlearnedscholarsshouldacceptmYWOrdhavinglnVeStlgatedit likegold,throughburning,Cutting,andrubbing,but[shoutヰ]not[acceptit merelY]outofreverence・’’61HethenrepeatsasimilarversepennedbYtheIndian masterRatnえkarag豆nti:62 Alackoffaithisthechiefofenemies;aneXCeSSOffiithisanoccasionforgreat delaYThatisbecausetheomniscience[ofaBuddha]isunderstoodthroughcorrect COgnition&7umdp4);throughdevotion,Omnisciencewillnotcomeabout. ユ0 ・\・′/::・“ルりん∴/さ〟・′;∫′川;り・く・ Sapan’srigoroustraininginBuddhistepistemologyandlogic(thescienceof “correctcognition,”pYdmdt2d)−firstintheTibetanmedium,aSayOungSCholas− ticstudent,andlaterthroughthemediumofSanskrit,underthelongtutelageof fourlearnedIndianp叩4itas−Sethimapartf王ommostofhis丘1lowTibetan Buddhists.ThoughdialecticstudieshadspreadbYtheninTibet,theyincludeda numberofTibetanadaptationsandsignificantdeparturesfiomIndianDhar makirtiandoctrines・SapancontinuedtobeanIndophileatatimewhenmost hiscontemporarieswerebusilYadaptingBuddhismtoitsnewhomeinwhatwas rapidlybecomlngaPOSトIndianera・ SapanmadelittleeffbrttoconcealhisimpatiencewithcertainTibetansfor whatheconsideredtobetheiruncriticalacceptanceofdoctrineswhoseaut 1tyWaSqueStionable・63HisownymdstickofauthenticitYhadalargehistorical andtraditionalistcomponent,andhelookedtoIndiafo,rtheultimatesourceso Buddhism: J WhateverwasspokenbYtheBuddha,COmPiledbYtheCouncils,realizedinmedita− tionbYSiddhas,eXPOundedbYlearnedexperts¢L2t2dii4),tranSlatedbYtranSlators, andwidelYreCOgnizedamongthelearned−thataloneistheBuddha’sDoctrinethat shouldbestudied,taught,andpracticed・64 Here“spokenbytheBuddha”includedmorethanthenormalmodernreader mightexpect−nTe恒otjustscripturestracedbacktotheBuddhaSakYamuni butalsosomescrlPtureSheldtobeofenlightenedinsplration・Forhere”theBud− dha,”too,WaSaWiderconcept,inharmonYWiththestandardMah豆YえnatheorY ofthe“ThreeBodies”存kugsu頑.SapanalsodidnotexcludethepossibilitYOf laterrevelationsreceivedthroughdreams,divinevisions,andthelike,Saym theYCOuldbeacceptedaslongastheYd鼻dnotvitiatethedoctrinalessentialsoft satrasandtantras(seeDSIII6∼4). IfheperceivedsomethingtobedoctrinallYamiss,Sapanexcludednotradi− tionfiomthepurviewofhiscriticalremarks・HencehisC肋rD解7mtidtionゲ tbeTbreeCb滋∫SuCCeededincrltlCIZlng,OnatleastonepolntOranOther,almo everYlineage,includingtheKadampa,KagYupa・andNYingmapa・Indoingso, SapandidnotthrowouttheestablishedscrlPtureSOftheothertraditionbutat− temptedtoshowthatlateradherentshadcontradictedtheoriginalteachingsof theirowntradition.Healsorestrictedeachcritiquetoslngleitemsofth PraCtice・ InjustificationofhiscrltlqueS,SapapappealedtoBuddhisthistorYandto dutyofthewisetobevigi1antincarefu11Ymaintainlngthedoctrine・Heargued thatbecauseeverYreSultofbenefitandhappinessforlivingbeingsderivesfrom thepracticeoftheDharmaexactlyastheBuddhaintended−andnotfromits ム〟γβJん‘、血JJ ZI WrOngPraCtice−thewisearemorallYObligatedtorefuteerrorsindoctrinalinter− Pretationandpracticewhenevertheseoccur・Thus,eVenVerYearlYinthehistorY OfBuddhism,theSecondCouncilwasconvenedbYSeVenhundredarhatstore)eC thetenwrongpreceptsoftheVaii51imonks・65TheThirdCouncil,tOO,aCCOrding toSapan・WaSCOnVenedtorefutethefalsetheoriesofMaムえdeva,aCOrruPtbutim− menselYPOPularmonk・66(Thesourcesdi脆ronwhathappenedattheThird Council,andSapan’saccount,Whichisnotattestedtoinotherhistories,maYgO backtoatraditionconveYedtohimbYhisteachers,aSGoramPa,sDSKhPstatesin COnneCtionwithaquestionofShakYaChokden.)67 Inadditiontotherefutationofnon−BuddhistIndiandogmascarriedthrough byDignえga,Dharmakirti,andothersavants,itwasalsontcessarYtOSubjectBud− dhistsystemsofdoctrineandphilosophicaltenetstocriticalanalysIS,inorderto reachahigherinsight・68HenceNえg叫unaandotherMえdhYamikasdidnothesi− tatetoanalyzeandrejecttheinferiortheoriesandinterpretationsoftheHinaY豆na andlowerMah豆Y豆naschooIs. InTibet,tOO,arguedSapan,ithadpreviouslybeennecessarYtOrefutecertain meretriciousdoctrinesespousedbYtheChinesemasterHwashangMah豆Yえna (Ho−ShangMo−hoYen),WhointhelateeighthcenturYhadbeendefeatedinde− batebyKamalagiladuringtherelgnOfthegreatTibe[ankingTtisongDeutsan (742−797)・69Then,a丘ertheeclipseofBuddhismthroughthepersecutionledbY KingLangdarma(diedmid−ninthcenturY),thegreattranslatorRinchenSangPO (9∼8−Ⅰ。∼5)andhisdiscipleShiwaO,arOYalmonkofGuge,hadcampaignedto PurifythereligionofwidespreadabusesintantricpracticesbYWriting,repeC− 1i、r】1・、仙・」二)掛′川′ノ・′′んり′(イル・椚几′、わ・′り′∴\;′′ト/ノ/…川‘√∫ルー‥′∼′ぜlんⅧ・リノノ′よ1・ノ 用・削/川・1−・l′//・・バn…」/ん・叫/ブ仙′んり=/−′川り′一触・l∴刷′−′7」打力ノ′望・ヾト・\如、、旬 ∫un binp4)・Stil11ater,thetranslatorG6KhukpaLhatsahadcounteredthe SPreadofcertainothererrantteachingsbYCOmPOSingThe嘩idtion仲roneous Dbdrma(Cあ0∫毎∫un砂inp4)・Therea丘er,Sapanmaintained,therehadbeenlit− tlepracticlngOfincorrectdoctrines untila丘erthedeathofSachenKunga NyingpoinI=58・ThenextseventY−fiveYearShadwitnessedagreatexpansionof Tibetanreligiousactivitiesingeneral,buttheseincluded,inSapan’sview,thepro− 1iferationofnumerousquestionableinterpretationsandpractices・70 Whicherroneousteachingsdid5apanhaveinmind∼AmongtheprlnCIPal theoriesandpracticescriticallyexaminedinAChdrDぞ炉rentidtionげtbeT%ree Cbあare: Ⅰ・Certaininterpretationsofthe“matrixoftheTlth豆gath 2・TheidentificationofspecificlevelsoftantrlCYOgawithspeci丘cstagesofin− Sight; 3・ThetheorYthatliberationcanbeattainedthroughrelianceonaslnglemeans; 、\・ヰ‘√/:′り・〟′・バ/叶・′j′′川lげ人・ ユユ 4.Theviewthatkarmice飴ctsareinevirable,eVenforrheBuddha; ∼.ThedoctrineofunvarYlngVlrtueandvice; 6・Theconceptofthedharmadhatuastransferablevirtue; 7.TheviewthatthevowsofIndividualLiberation&7Gtimob4)canendure untiltheattainmentofbuddhahood; 8.Theview[ha亡GnosisoftheGreatSeal「あdhdmu勿ノcanbeachievedmerelY bystopplnga11mentalactivitY; 9.Theoplnionthatpracticeofthebodhisattva’s“exchangeofselfforothers” CanPrOduceille銑cts; IO.TheconfemingofMind−OnlY(YogえCara)vowsofbodhisattvahoodthrough def邑ctiverites; ⅠⅠ・ThecultivationoftantrlCYOgaWithoutprlOrinitiation; Ⅰ2・・TheconstruingoftheVajraSow(Vajravえrえhi)empowermentasalicenseto PraCticetheanut亡araYOgaran亡raS; Ⅰ3.ThetransmissionofvowsandinitiationsaccordingtocertaindreamS; Ⅰ4・TheritualimpartlngOfthevows ofthe ultimate bodhicitta−generation ・ハ描仙Fjソん′ん∼′〟心/J/′Ji=・−しI I5.The魚bricationofbogussatras,tantraS,relics,andtantrlCPreCePtS・71 AlthoughtheTibetanmastersortraditionsthatmaintainedthesepositions mostlYbeenidentifiedbylatercommentators,itisapitYthatotheraspectsofthe work’shistoricalbackground,SuChastheculturalandpoliticalsituationinTibet intheI2,20SandI2,30S,havesofarbeenimpossibletodocumentinanYdetail・ IrisalsoclearthatS叩an’scrltlqueSrePreSentinpartanapologeticforhisown maintraditions,Whichtreatedp血imoksathehesfromaM已1asarvえstivえdaper− spective,thebodhisattvacodeprlmarilYfromaMadhyamakaapproach,and VajraYanadoctrinesmainlY丘・Om[heanuttarayogatantraperspectiveofsuch”New School’’bdrmdP4)instructionsasthelbthuJitblbbuitpreceptsofHe叫ra PraCtice・Regardingthepratimok亨a,theM已1asarvaStivえdatraditionwastheonlY SrえvakapratimoksaexistingamongTibetanmonastics,andSapanhadreceivedhis maintraininginit丘omhisordinationabbot,5akYagribhadra.Withregardtothe bodhisattvacode,thereexistedinIndiaandTibetasecondbodhisattvatradition thatoftheYog豆C豆raastransmittedbyAtigatotheKadampa,thelegitlmaCyOf whichSapanalsoaccepted・RegardingtheVajraYえnacode,theessentialsofSapan’s ownsYStemOfanuttarayogatantrlCPraCticeareoutlinedbyhiminDSIIII2・7−Ⅰ30・ The丘veessentialstepsofthatsystemwere(Ⅰ)theprocessofmaturation,Which consistsofobtainingthefourinitiations;(2)theprocessofliberation,Whichcon− sistsof血evariousmeditativerechniqueざOftheⅣ0餌a許Sみ申〟成鳥腸摺戌and ムJけ〃〟JJ‘丁わ/J Zう n*dnndkYdm4);(3)cultivationofmah豆mudrえGnosis;(4)engaginginconduct thatbringsabouttheintegrationofsaqlSaraandnirv叫a(%bor払bs7Yb励and(∼) SeCurlngthetemporarYandfinalresultsofe鮎rtsmadeintheprecedingsteps. TheConceptofThreeCodes ThounderlyingpremisesofSapan’sworkarethateverYBuddhistpracticecanbe associatedwithoneofthreedistinctsYStemSOfdiscipline−thepr豆timoksavowof the5rぇvakaschooIs,thebodhisattvavowoftheMah豆YえnaschooIs,Orthe Vidyえdharavowofthel旬rayまnalineages−and,further,−thatthesethreearenot COmPletelydistinctinnaturebutbecome,infact,“Ofasinglenature”through transformationduringVhjraYえnainitiation・ThisisthesenseofSapan’sassertions inhisChdrD解mtidtion可切eTX・7Yeadhthat“Oneoughttoseekoutandtake thefourinitiationsfromamasterwhoselineageofpreceptorsisintact…・From himonewillbecomeequippedwiththethreesetsofvows,’’72andthat“Enlight− enment,theFullYEnlightenedOnetaught,Willbeachieved.・・ifoneknowsthe essentialsofthetwoprofoundprocessesthatareendowedwiththethreesetsof vows.刀73 Thedoctrinethat,uPOnreCelVlngtantricinitiationonthelevelofthehighest tantras(左nutid7りqg4),aPerSOntakesonallthreesystemsofvowswasnot,Of COurSe,Orlglnalwith Sapan.Itis also propounded,forinstance,in the l勿Ya3bkbdYaidntYu(PII3),Whichstates,“Thecharacteristicofonewhoisrightly endowedwithrhethreevowsis[hispossessionof]thepr豆timok亨a,bodhisattva, andvidyえdhara[rules].”74Andintheeleventhcentury,theKashmirianscholar J負えnairibhadraaddressedtheproblemofconflictsbetweencodesinhis3ihsd?2一 淵加轡ゆぬ劾(P4∼46).アラ TheinterrelationshipofthethreecodeshadalreadybeentoucheduponbY Sapan’suncleTtakpaGYaltshen,Who,inhistextontherootvowsoftheVajra− Y豆nasYStem(・ILlbd㌢hu7qbdbcubzhipaプ如才pdgu14yed祐hrul乎07d,76istra− ditionallYSaidtohavepositedanessentialidentitYOfthethreesetsofvows throughtransformationofthetwolowercodestotheleveloftantricobservanCe な乃dSgyur7郡bogc砂,thoughhedoesnotactuallYuSethisphrase・77Inseveralof hiswrltlngS,SapanCitesthisworkasauthoritative.TlakpaGYaltshen’sin且uenceis Seenalsoinhisnephew’sMd鱒γdmdkdRiiejbrlhduc吻tbel桁HioBl妙ienment (2畑umdh轡4yi∫em∫bs郎edb/ichogiW8whichSapancomposedtocomplement hisuncle’scommentarYtOCandragomin’stwentY−VerSeWOrkonthebodhisattva vows(theSd?2urWim3dkd,Tib.5Dompd7VIisbupLi)entitledByd7qChub∫emSゆd宣 ∫dbmpdgSdlbdr∫tOnPdShhkd7V/i∫bupd宣rndmPdrb∫bddpd・79HereSapanechoes histeacher’sthesisthattheritesofbodhicitta−generationoftheMadhyamakaand ユ4 ・叫:・∫〃〃′′〟′・√;///・・川′川;′ぺ Mind−OnlYSChooIsdifftrinmanYreSPeCtSandshouldbeseparatelyreceivedand observed.80Inthe77,neCbあSapanmakesthisanissueinhiscrltlqueOfcertain KadamParitesforimpartlngthebodhisattva’svows・andherehewasalsofo1low− ingtheexampleofhisIndianmaSter5akYairibhadra.81 InthehistoryofIndianBuddhism,theterm”threecodes”or”threevows” 存dbmpdgSun?)didnotalwaYSCOnnOtethethreefoldgroupingofpr豆timok亨a,bo− dhisattva,andmantraY加abutmeantvariousthingstovariousschooIs・TheAb− hidharmatreatisesofbothHinayえnaandMahaY豆nasystemsrhavethreevowsin common:(Ⅰ)thevowsofindividualliberation&Ydtimobd)(2)theyowofguard− ingagainstevilinfluences(云ndsYuu),and(3)thevowofconcentrativeabsorption 嘩γdnd)・Fromapracticalpointofview,thesewereidenticalwiththedlree trainings6riii毎ノ√(Ⅰ)fortheattainmentofliberationasanarkat,Pratyekabud− dha,Orbuddha,OnemuStabandoneachandeveryemotionalandcognltivedefile− ment作物throughcorrectdiscriminativeunderstanding¢Y4方動(2)thatdis− criminativeunderstandingdependsonatranquilconcentrationthatisapure meditativeconcentration6dmddhi);and(3)forthattranquilconcentration,again onemustrelYOnpuremOralitY@ih).82For5rぇvakasoftheSautrえntikaand VaibhasikaschooIs,theconceptof“threecodes”derivesalsofromthe伽timokw− JdtYa,Wherethetermreferstothevows(ofrestraint)ofbody,SPeeCh,andmi −/仙ノ懸ゞ.l・ん/ぷ・ヾ′=〃.くlハ′ん机/・・=・U・ Amongfo1lowersoftheMahえyえna,thetermisalsoappliedtothebodhisattva’s threefo1dtraininglnethics−thatis,inthemoralitYOfrestraintfiommiscond 6dmydYdGh),themoralitYOfamassingfactorsofvirtue andthemoralitYOfpromotingthewelfareofbeings(iattydrihdkr妙・Thesetop− icsarediscussedextensivelYinasatraoftheRatndk房idS5tra−COllectionentitled ら● 1こ・‘ソん〃州ノ/′‘・ム7,!−、ヾノJノ・吋イ′ムー・乃一肌・l;り′・∫・、− Atleastthreedi脆rentconceptionsof“threevows”存dbmgfunq)arefoundin VajraY豆nascriptures・TheSdwupiidnt7adefinesitasconsistingof(Ⅰ)thevowsof thegenerationofbodhicittakittoq,dda5dWa7W(2・)thevowsofthestageofgen− eration極少dttikfmn‘M?lu7勿,and(3)rhevowsofthesrageofcompletion h*anndk7umdSdWd吻・EIsewhere,thetermisusedinreferencetothepledges 6dm4y4)of body,SPeeCh,and mind・Finally,aS already mentioned,the l句raiuhd7utdntYuidentifiesthethreecodesasthoseofthepr豆timok亨a,bodhi− SattVa,andvidYえdhara(orVajray豆na)sYStemS・85 WhenSapanspeaksof”threecodes,”itiswiththeselastthreeinmind・BrieflY put,Sapan}streatmentofthecodesrevealstheunderlYingpremisethatwhileth practiceofallteachingsmaYbeincludedwithinthesethreevows,OnlYOnthe levelofthetantrasofthemantraYえnacantheYCOmetOgether,becausetheSrえー vakas’canon has noformulation of the two higher codes,nOr does the P豆ramltayanaCanOnCOntainaformulationofthemantravows・Thereasonisthis: 血加ゐ助加 ユち TheSr豆vakasholdthatbYgeneratlngareSOIvetoattainanYOfthethreetYPeSOf liberationandbYObservlngPratimoksarules,OneaChievestherespectivestatesof liberationbydintofconcentration6kmdth4)andinsighth}少d&dn4)meditations・ Thefo1lowersofthePえramit豆Yえna(non−tantraMah豆Y豆na)holdthateventhough SuPremeliberationisachievedthroughthebodhisatⅣa’svow,theprdtimokwof thebodhisattvacertainlYmuStSerVeaSthebasisforthat・AndtheV4jraY豆naadher− entsmaintainthateventhoughthevowsofthetantricadeptaretheprimerequl− SiteforattainlngSuPremeliberation,allthethreecodesmustbepracticedbecause thebodhisattvaandpr豆timoksavowsdefinitelYmuStServeaSthefoundationfor themantravows.86 Howso?AtthetimeoftheactualritualoftakingV可raY豆navowsinaninitia− tion,thereisapreliminaryritualoftakingthepr豆timoksaandbodhisattvavows; Whilecultivatinginmeditationthetwostage thereisthepreliminarYPraCticeofthepr豆timoksaandbodhisattvavows;andin guardingagalnStthem叫OrtranSgreSSionsofthemantravows,thema)OrtranS− gressionsofthepr豆timoksaandbodhisattvacodes,tOO,are.tObeavoided.Henc mostritesofmandala−initiationincludetheinjunction: Tbthefourretinues87whopossesstheirrespectiverulesoftrainlng [and]whoareendowedwithMah豆y豆namentality, thereisimpartedbYtheThth豆gata theperfectritethathasbeentaught・ ThefirstlineofthisverseimpliestheriteofimpartlngPrえtimoksavows;thesec− Ond,bodhisattvavows;andthelasttwo,thebestowalofmantraYえnavows. Similarly,inaninitiationonepraYSfortheconferringofeachvowwiththe prayer: Pleasegrantmethesepledges・Pleasegrantmethebodhisattva[vows],tOO・And Pleasegrantmealsothetriplerefuge.[of]Buddha,Dharma,andSalpgha・ Furthermore,thelqnubkbd7utdntmeXPlainsthatwhenthemasterdelivershisex− hortationtoaninitiateinaninitiationceremony,thephrase“individualpledgesof theFiveFamilies”88alludestothemantravows;“thefourteen[vows]otherthan those[pledges]”impliesobservanceofthebodhisattvavows;andthepratimok亨a VOWSareindicatedbYtheinjunction,“Ybumustnottakelife・”Finally,throughthe tantrlCPledgeof”nottrangresslngtheSugata’steachings,1tlSClearthatbYmain− ))■● tainlngthis,Onehastomaintaintheprえtimoksaandbodhisattvavows,tOO.89These arejustsomeofthepointsmentionedbyGorampaforverifyingSapan’spremise thatal1thevowscometogetheratonepolntinthepracticeofthemantravows・ ユ占 \坤・・√ノミ川・√ご′・′こ/〟‥√′∫′川・一・・(・ Finally,Whenvowsarebeingpreservedingeneral,rulesaresustainedthroug dailYCOnfessionandⅥjraY豆navowsareupheldthroughhonorlngthepledgesof theFiveFamilies.Forallthesereasons,itisclearthattheessenceofeachofthe threecodesisgeneratedinaslngleriteofmandala−initiation・ ReactiontoAChdrD解7mtidtionグihe77m?e・Cbあ 「=㌧、 Sapan,sbrotherSangtshahaddreadedahostileresponset?theJPublicationof Sapan’sCみarD≠伊7mtidtionグihe77・7YeCbあanditwasnotlongincoming(in averbalform,atleast).ThusSapanfounditnecessarYtらclarifyanddefendfur thernotonlYhisthesesbuthismotives・ThisheattemptedinlengthYlettersof reply伽h7utOqueriesbYOtherreligiousfigures,SuChasChakLots豆Waan LowoLotsawa,Whicharetranslatedinthisvolume.90ThatSapanwassurprisedbY theextentoftheoutrageandresentmentdirectedathimisespeciallYeVide twootherepistles,hisLetierわiheN♭bk−Mindd6R5/e5budmpdmamSLl乎ri7q んソ、lイぷ八=」/け√げ′〃′/′‘加′〟八ハ誹′′/凡け〟血′′′…∫イ′/,(、/川ハか高・り′∫・−−こ11… translatedhere.Inthesetwoworksandanumberofothershorttexts,Sapanre− mainsfirmandcallsagainforanopen−mindedinqulrylntOtheissuesherai the7場作どC♭あ. JDomgSumLiteratureafterSapan Sapan,sin且uenceonlaterscholarsofhisownschoolしinconnectionwithAChdr D伊Ymtidtionダtbe乃reeCbdbisclearfromthenumberofexegeticalwritings onthisworkcomposedbYSubsequentSabTaPalearnedmasters・Indeed,the77・7Te CbdbquicklYgainedalmostcanonicalstatuswithintheSakYaPatradition(Go− rampainoneplaceevenlikensthetexttoa“fourthpi!aka”)・Inadditiontothe straightforwardcommentariesandsubcommentariesbYSakYaPateaChersthat begantoappearfromthelatefourteenthcenturYOnWard,therewerebothqu tions(翫b4)posedforthesakeofcriticallYeXaminingdi瓜cultpointsinthetext andanswerstothosequestions(妨ゐh7u・Theseculminatedintheexchangeof questionsandanswersbYShえkYaChokden(Ⅰ428−Ⅰ∼07)andGorampainthemid− fiLteenthcentury.92TherewasevenanaddendumMdSko7dbyGoramPameant tocompletetheworkbyaddressingseveralsubjectsthatSapanmentionsatthebe− glnnlngOfhistreatisebutdoesnotactuallytreatinthebodYOfthework・93 Sapan’s乃7YeCbあnotonlYgaVerisetoanimmensebodYOfsubsequent Sakyapascholarshipbutalso,directlYOrindirectly,attraCtedattentiontoth “three−COde”thematic.ScholarsineverYtraditioncametoinvestlgatehowthe カzか♂ゐ√戎β〝 ユ7 threedisparatecodesofconductcouldbeobservedsimultaneOuSly,andtheYalso investlgatedrelateddoctrinalandpracticalquestions. InresponsetoSapan’sspecificcrltlqueS,however,manYeminentmastersof Othertraditionschosedignifiedsilenceasthebestreply・(Somelatermastersare Saidtohave)uStifiednotansweringdirectlYbYSaYlngthatSapan’scriticismswere directedat“wrongpracticesoftheignorant”ratherthanatthetraditionsascor− rectlYPraCticed.)Butabouttwoandahalfcenturiesafterthe777YeeCbdhap− Peared,afewscholarsfromoutsidetheSakYaPatraditionbegantobreakthesi− 1enceandrepIYinwrltlngtOParticularpolntSraisedinthework−ParticularlY SCholarsfromtheKagYuPaSChooIs,aStheirtraditionsgainedinscholasticsophis− tication,1earnedresources,andpoliticalinAuenceinthe・latefifteenthandsix− teenthcenturies,duringtheRinpungpaandTbangpa−kingperiods・ Thesewrittenrepliesarefoundbothinindependenttreatisesandinother minorworks,theearliestdocumentedcriticalrepIYtOafewpassagescomingfrom thepenofthepoliticallYPOWerfulFourthShamarKarmapaCh6kYiTtakpa (Ⅰ453−I524)・TⅣOmOreeXtenSiverepliestorelatedpassagesarefoundinlonger treatisesonmahえmudrえtheorYandpracticebYDrukpaKunkhYenPemaKarpo (I52・7−I592・)andGampoJenngaT王ashiNamgYal(I5Ⅰ3−I596?),Whowererepresen− tativesoftwodistinctKagYuPalineages・94 Sapan’spublicationoftheT%7TeCbdksencouragedthedevelopmentofamore criticalperspectiveonthepartofTibetanreligiousscholars・Laterexponentsofa SimilarlycriticalapproachincludeChakLotsawa(ⅠⅠ97−Ⅰ2・64),thegreatcompiler But6n(Ⅰ2,90−Ⅰ364),Rendawa(Ⅰ349−Ⅰ4Ⅰ2・),andKLedrupJe(Ⅰ38∼−Ⅰ438)・ Carefu1scrutlnyOfteachingslnaSPlritofhonestlnqulrYISatime−honored Buddhisttradition・ItisalsoSapan’smaimeSSageinhisChdrD解7mdddonグ ihe771reeCbdh.SevenandahalfcenturleSafteritscomposition,Sapan’s77TYee Cbdkretainsitspowertoinsplre−andtoexasperate,tOO,nOdoubt・ ThePresentTmnslation DespitethetitleofAChdrD解7mtiationグihe乃reeCbあanditssubdivision intothreechaptersentitled“VowsofIndividualLiberation,”“vowsoftheBodhi− SattVa,”and“VowsoftheVhjraVehicle,”Sapandidnotof臨rhisreadersanactual exegesisofthesethreecodes・Rather,heassumedthattheYalreadYknewthebasics andinvestlgatedinsteadparticularproblematicpolntSOfTibetanpracticean interpretation・Thusheaddressedhimselftoasomewhatlearnedaudiencebut alsotriedtokeephislanguagesimple・Although6600fhis996stanzasarede− VOtedtoY勾ray豆natopics,heavoidsadetaileddiscussionoftantricmatters,Other thaningeneralterms. Z8 ・\ヰ・′J:…′h√;1ルー川′川′′′イ・ Sapancomposedtheentireworkinseven−Sy11ablemnemoniclines,eXCePtfor thefinalthreeversesoffourlineseach,Whichhaveninesy11ablesperline.Ju− thoughtheterminologYandcontentsofthetextdonotlendthemselveseasilYtO Englishverse,JaredRhotonattemptedtoretaintheversifiedformattosomeex− tent,inordertoreAec[theoriginalBavorofSqpan’sヤOrk・Foreaseofreference andtogivethereaderthematicorientation,headdedtopicalheadingsbasedon (butnotidenticalto)95Gorampaゝoutlineofthetext(seeAfipendixA),aSWellas four−1ineversenumbers・Dr・Ⅲ10tOnalsotranslatedthesixletterstocompletein OneVOlumeSapan’sstatementsonissuesaddressedinthe77・YW Fortheconvenienceofthereaderandtoclarifythetextualbasisofthetransla− tion,aSlightlYemendedTibetan“vu1gate”亡eXtOfAChwD伊7mtidtion4ibe 77・YeeCbdhhasbeenincludedasAppendixB・Althoughthisisnotacriticaledi− tion,itdoesindicatewhichreadingthetranslatorfo1lowedinarrlVlngatthe丘n Englishrendering・ThetextisbasedmainlYOntheI736Dergeedition(accessible intheSK8reprint),thoughDr.RhotonalsoreferredtoaSikkimeseblockprint edition(theSa−NgorxYlographicedition,CloselYrelatedtotheDergeedition) and,forclarifyingdi伍culties,tOCOmmentatOrS(mainlYGorampa,butoccasion− allyP6khangpa)andoralinformants(includingDeshungRinpoche,Ⅰ906−Ⅰ987). Inafewplaces,therefore,thetextdepartsfromtheDergeedition・Acarefu1criti− Caleditionwouldbedesirableforplaclngfuture’studiesofthisseminaltreatiseon amoresecuretextualbasis・AdetailedtraclngOfa11thesources Sapanisalsosomethingthatremainstobedone・ ThisbookwascompletedthanksprlmarilYtOthe壷eneroushelpofDr.Dav RJackson,Whoestablishedaworkingversi丘cationofSqpan’s77・YeeCbdh(fo1lowT ingasmuchaspossibleJaredRhoton’sdivisionofthetextintoquatrains),and Ⅵ心oclarifiedthetranslationandnotesinmanYSPOtS.Withouthim,thistesta− menttoSapan’sandJared’sscholarshipwouldnotexist. NOTES I・ThisIntroduc亡ionisadaptedinpartfromJaredDouglasRhoton’s‘AStudYOfthe sDom−gSumofSap叩,”Ph.D・dissertation(NewYork:ColumbiaUniversity,工985), assupplementedbyDavidP・Jackson,nOWattheUniversityofHamburg・Weare gratefu1toMr・Jan−UlrichSobischforhelpfulcommentsontheIn亡roduc亡ionandLbr expandingandclarifyingthepassages丘omGoramPa’sDSPDpresentedherein・Mr. HidetoshiFushimihelpedines【ablishingversi£cafionbYCheckingthesubjectbreaks inGorampa’sエ)ぷⅥ該. 2”Sinceatleastthefifteenthcentury,Sapan’sChdrDi6;7mtiationqftheT7・ree 坤ompdgSumgyi7Wbtu鱒γeba,Shorttitle∫Domgfumrabd&dhasbeenapartof therequiredcurriculumfortheadvancedacademicdegreesofgeshe俺ebsbe)0=協b 砂抑JPdatthegreatSakYaPaSCholasticseminaries,beingoneofthe”eighteengreatly ノお加あrガ♂乃 ユタ renowned【basicworks]’’伽野Cbenbcob7md)whosemasterYWaS亡raditiona11Ydem− OnStratedbYSCholars・Theseeighteenworks,WhicharelistedinD.Jackson(Ⅰ987), P・I58,COntinuetoconstiTtethecorecurriculum・eVeninexile,OftheSakYaSeminaries・ 3・SapanalsomakesthispolnteXplicitlYinchapter30fhis彪LCidation卯e5ン酢‡hient r乃〟∂♪β㌢‘如轡クβ闇あね㌘〃J∂〟,Shorttitle乃〟あク〟プ卸轡g㍑〃,p.‘.Ⅰ.2沌1.ⅠIa. 4・ThebasicmeanlngSOftheTibetan鱒γebdare“distinctions,Classi丘cationsinkind,” and“difftrentiation・”Theadditionofthepre丘Ⅹnlbtutoform7冴あtud&ebamaYln− tensifytheidea(”thoroughorclearclassificationordi脆rentiation”),OritmaY叩ean SOmethinglike‘‘analYSis・”AccordingtoApte’sSdn∫krit−EWDictiond7yOneSan− SkritequivalentofTubtu鱒γebd,namely,PYabbeda,Canmean“dif臨rence,distinc− tion,”amOngOtherthings・F・Edgerton,inhisBuddbLftjb′bridSanskritDiction however・Observedthatp7WbheゐcouldhavethemeanlngOf“analysis”inBuddhist WOrks・ThiswouldfitSapan’sintentandprocedure,WhichhTaStOdi脆rentiate,Clas− Si6ちanddrawdistinctionsinordertoclari&AnotherSanSkritequivalentisyibh廃仏 Whichalsomeans“analYSIS・”ThewordYWbtud4yeb4,OritsabbreviatedformYdb 鱒γe,isattes亡edtoinatleastoneofSapan’sotherwritings,his彪‘CidminグtbeS4ge‡ 彪お花ち鈷1.Ⅰ6b. ∼・Sapan’suseofthethreecodesasgeneralorganizlngthemesissimilartoKongtrtil Y6ntenGYatSho’sstruc亡uringofhis“encYClopedia,”theSbesbwkunk4ydb働bmc− i7qAHO勿ecisqfhou}k勿ノ,althoughinKongtriil’sworkonealsofindsdetaileddis− CuSSionsontherelationsamongthethreecodes. 6・TheSakYaPa“tranSformed,aSinglenature”anLugyur77gObogc砂theoryofthethree codes’relationsisdescribedbelowinthesectionoftheIntroductionentitled“The ConceptofThreeCodes”andinGorampa,DSPL}p.2,06(fol.Ⅰ4a−b). 7・See,forinstance・LochenDharmashri,scommen亡arYtONgariPanchen,s∫Domgsum rndm7W64sceridinmentげibe77・7?eCbみノ,foL297a(reDSI40)andfol.307a(re β∫Ⅰぅ‘リア). 8・SeeSapan’sB2t7mCeGltejbrihel彩‰e(mKbasparndmSj智Pd㌢3gO,ShorttitlemR%as j感III52:チTtOCOmmentary,andD・Jackson(Ⅰ987),Pp・354and396,n・95・ 9・Sapan’scrltlCISmSOftheargumentationmethodsoftheSangphuschool,themain COntemPOrarytraditionofBuddhistdialecticsandscholastics,arefoundinhisBh− t?nCe危iejbrihetmse(nRbLu砂chapter3,and77u∫uYe4Rea∫Oni7q(7?bddmd 7轡gおり,Chapte=Ⅰ. IO・ThisexpositorYmethodisoneofthefivethemesofusubandhu,sexpositionmanual t5/dk々ゆu毎andisdiscussedbYSapaninhisB2tYdnCeGktejbribel鞄e極R%Luj頑 ⅠⅠぅ∋. ⅠⅠ・SapandiscussesthisprlnCipleatlengthinDSIII492仔 工Z.Seeエ)∫ⅠⅠⅠ‘28. Ⅰう.See上)∫ⅠⅠⅠ古!夕. Ⅰ4・SeeDSIII62・5・OnepassagethatvergesonapersonalattackisDSIII639−64Ⅰ. I5・SeeSapan’sstatementsinstanza30fthePrologueto乃eTZ・YWCbあ. Ⅰ6・OntheSangphuschool,SeenOte9aboveandnote40below. Ⅰ7.See上)∫ⅠⅠⅠ∼86任 Ⅰ8・Forreferencestothesereactions,SeeD・Jackson(Ⅰ990),P.87,n.∼9.Moregenerally, SeealsoD・Jackson(Ⅰ994b),P・67. Ⅰ9■See,鈷rinstance,β∫ⅠⅠⅠ47夕任 ZO・Gorampa,β5Ⅳ鎚(朗現vol・Ⅰ4),p・Ⅰう0.エーZ. 叩 1ヰ・√/い′′〟∫・バ/・ご正・・′〃′川;り1・ 2,Ⅰ.Fi丘hDalaiLama(Ⅰ967),P.∼5. 22.Thuuken(Ⅰ984),p.Ⅰ76(onThuuken,SeenOte2∼below)・Notallhis【Oricalsourceslis theKh6nmonkamOngthesevenfirstprobationers・ 23・OfthescoresofIndianBud hist antfic YClesthabWereadoptedbYthefiveSakYa patriarchsandas imi1atedintothereliglOuSlifeofTidet,themostnotablearetheHe− va)raOfVirapa’stradition,theVhjrakilaofPadmasambhava,rtheV4jraYOglniof Narotap豆da,theMahakalaofuraruci,andtheGuhyasamijaofNえgaTjuna’slineage・ ThesYStemOftantrictheorYandpracticemostfivoredbYthe wasthatofthePathwithItsFruit(Skt・㌔智bdLmd7g2?,Tib・しLlh2協Yai),aSYStemOf practicethathaditsoriginwiththereali2ationoftheIndianmahasiddhaVir已pa(c・ 6∼0)andthathadbeenbroughttoTibetbyGayadhara・TheYandtheirfo1lowerspro− ducedavastcorpusofliteratureinexegesisofalmosteverYCOnCeivablehcet methodology・FromitalsowasderivedthespecialphilosophicalviewoftheSakYa order,thatofthe“nondi脆rentiationofcYClicexistenceandliberation”(%bor塊∫ d4γermed),inwhichanintegrationofluminositYandemptiness(如Isio7qgmL7qjtd isheldtoconstitutetheultimateperceptlOnOfreality・ 24.Gorampa,DSupp・Ⅰ2∼−Ⅰ26・InthesevencenturiesthathavepassedsinceSakYa Panditawasalive,almostascoreofbiographiesofhimhasbeencomposedbYTibetan scholars.OneoftheearliestistheverybriefCho∫depd写rnLlmihdrbsゐ∫Pd(SKB 6:3I−32),WritteninChinabySapan’snephewPhakpaLedr6Gyaltshen(Ⅰ2・3卜Ⅰ2Bo), whobecamehissuccessortotheabbatialthroneofSalga.T毎ostillearlierbiographies recordingSapan’sstudiesareLhopaKunkhYenRinchenPal’sdtuLhnsa∫bwpdグ声td7 rnamthdrkunm物enrincbenゆdlgyismd2ddpd(cohtainedintheLdm洛7W∫h・b bsbdd[Dergeed・],VOl・Ⅰ戊4Lfo1s・38b−57a),andShangGYalwapal’sdFblkhnsdS々岬 PdZ24iidCbenpo7rnLmPdrLbdrPd(SKB5:433−438)・Tbosomewhatlater,Shortversi− fiedaccountsofthemaster,slifearethosecomposedbYtWO占fhisstudentsfiom協r− lung,nakpaGYaltshenandChangchubGYaltshen・ ThemostfamousoftheversifiedbiographiesofSapanappearedinI∼7タ,When thepoet−PrinceRinpungpaNgawangJiktenWangchukTtakpacompletedhislen l鱒γグ妨g励吻乃〟おdββ乃(あ彪/ク〟あび懲ク〃首座血∽,COntainedin血eエ〃椚協催∫ああ bJbadvol.IP4Lfols.67b−Ⅰ4∼a).Anotherwell−knownaccountofSapan’sliftis foundinthe(完neo毎γり協e5b々岬RZ・Onhmib/rお∫郎dgdu懲Yabscbenmp),areCOrd oftheKh6nhierarchscompiledbYtheSakYaSCholarAmeshabNgawangKunga S6nam,basedhereonamR%asj呼COmmentarYbyLowoKhenchenS6namLhun− drup・Inmorerecenthistoricalsources,Sapan’slifeisbestknownthroughthehistori− calwritingsoftheFi丘hDalaiLama,NgawangLobsangGYatSho,andthroughabiog− raphYCOmPOSedbYtheFirstPanchenLama,LosangCh6kyiGyaltshen・(Sapanwas claimedasoneofthepreviousincarnationsofthePanchenLama・) FurtherusefulinformationaboutSapan’slifecanbefoundincommentariesto hisworkscomposedbYSakYaPaSCholarsoflatercenturies・Thisisthe?Sewith P6khangpaRinchenGyaltshen’scommentarYtOSapan’sChdrDそ炉mtidt10nグtbe Tb7YeCbdhwritteninI42・7(sDompagfumgyiYdbtud4γeba7gzbu7qh鮮毎Par bsbadpdI‥9−24),LowoKhenchenS6namLhundrup’scommentarYtOTu励iYmCe √・こ爪・/′りJ/・(llも(い′′人7一・り,・…′・刷)′怯/・・′ソ1く・一∵′・′′・′;り・・′∼・んん打//,・亘再拙か′/小・′∴ pp・47−77),andGorampaS6namSengge’sD5N5h・ Gorampa(Ⅰ42・9−Ⅰ489)wroteanumberofcommentariesonSapan’sm可orwrit− 1ngS,includingslXinexegesisoftheTbreeCbdh・BornineasternTibetaninG6, 血飢〉Jあごめ乃 5Ⅰ Dokham(Kham),heproceededtoNalendraMonasterYincentralTibetattheageof nineteenandtherebecameapupiloftheleamedRongt6nShFjaKumigduringthe lastYearSOfthatmaster’slife.GorampathenstudiedphilosophYunderSangYePhelat themonasteryofDreyiilDzongkarKYetShalinT盲ang,andbYtheageoftwentY一点ve hadbeguntherehiscareerasagrea【teaCherandcommentator・Healsostudiedthe tantraSunderNgorchenKungaSangpoandMiichenK6nchogGYaltshenatNgor・ 刃soatNgorhestudied月蝕γ∂≠炉Ⅳ乃才fβ滋ク乃グ妨β乃僧αあunderthelearned masterGungruwa・InI474,heestablishedthescholasticcollegeofThakThupten NamgyalnearShigat,WherethestudyofSapan’s71ea5ure4Red30吻物gteり andCkdrDi6;7mtiat10nグtbeTbmCbLkf伸omgyumnlbdWwas良atured・Atthe ageofGAY−four,GorampabecameabbotofNgorMonasteryandheldthatofncefbr fourYearS・HiswritlngS,Whichhavecometobeacceptedasde丘nitivebYSakYaPa scholarsoflatergenerations,B11thirteenvolumes(nineonMah豆y亘nistphilosophy anddoctrine,fourontantra).HewrotebothhismajorwritingsontheTb7uCb慶トー hisane7dDiscou7Te(DSPZ}composedinI46Ⅰ)andCbmmenid7y(DSN5h,COm− POSedinI463)−atDreytilDzongkarKYetShalwhileinhisthirties・ ForfurtherdetailsofSapan’scareer,COnSultDavidJackson’ssurveYOfbiograph− icalsources(工987,PP.I5−23)andsymOPSisofkeYeVentSinthemaster’slifeasrecorded invarious¶betansources(ibid・,pp.叫一之タ)・ 25・The eighteenth−CenturY Gelugpa historian Thuuken Losang Ch6kYiNYima (Ⅰ757−Ⅰ802・)assertedthatJiwoLhepain且uencedSapan’slaterexpositionofexoteric Mah豆Y豆nadoctrine−PrObablYareferencetoSapan’swell−knownEh”idgiionグ 54gcilnie72t(Tubpd7勿7轡gSdD・SeeThuuken(工984),P・90:“Ma丘jugh0亨aSapan studiedKadamPateaChingsunderJiwol・hepa,WhowasadiscipleofNeusurpa,and inhisowndiscoursesheexplainedallthepracricesoftheordinarYMahaY豆napath solelyinaccordwiththeKadampasystem・HencehisSakYaPadisciplesalsostillprac− ticeinthatmanner.’’ButinfactSapan’sworkandexpositioncanprobablYbestbe モOmParedwiththeb∫tdnrimtreatisesofcertainKadamPaS・SeeD・Jackson(Ⅰ996)・ 26・SabTairibhadrawasthelastofthegreatIndianmaSterSfOmモnistertothereligious needsoftheTibetans.Chiefabbotofthe払medmonastlCunlVerSitYVikramaiilaat thetimeofitsdestructionbY血eMoslemarmiesofBaktymKhitii,hehadalsowit− nessedthesackofasecondkeycenterofBuddhistlearnlngatOdantapBri・In工204, he arrivedin Tibetin the companY Of nine‘‘1esser pa再its”−Vibh融icandra, D豆naiila,Sarpghairi,Sugatagri,andothers−andtaughtextensivelyinTもangandU untilhisdepamreforhshmirinI2I4・ Sapanmet5魂YagribhadradufingthelasthalfofI204,Whenhehimselfwas twenty−tWOOrtWentY−threeYearSOld.Onthatoccasion,theteacherwasexpounding thehumdf2LuJinLfCqWtOalargegatheringofstudentsatChumik−theverytextthat SapanwasthenstudYingundertheinstruc亡ionofT払urt6nSh6nnuSenggeatKYang− dur.Sapanremainedwith55kYagribhadrauntilthelatter’sdepartureforTもhurphu andLhasainthesummerofI2,0∼and,inthemas亡er’sabsence,aPPliedhimselftoin− tensivestudiesinSanskritliteraturewiththeassistanceofSugatairi,Whohadagreed toaccompanYhimto5akYa.InI208,5apanrejoined5akYairibhadra’sentourageand wasordainedbYhimlaterthatYear. TheIndianabbot,1ikeSapan’suncleTlakpaGyaltshen,WaSOneOfthema)Orin一 鮎encesthattransformedtheYOungTibetannobleintoaconsummatescholarand gaveshapetohisphilosophicalviews・Moreover,thepersonalrelationshipbetween ・\〟ト′/:′り′/′いこ川・∫刑∫ll:げ(・ うZ thetw。SeemSt。havebeenacl。Se㌫.Ameshab=あ血吻′4the5dbwRb。nhm− ib/(助∫砂dgdh7qYdb∫Chenmq)relatesthat,attheirfirstmeeting,Sapanrevealedthat hehadseentheKashmirianmasterinadreamyearsbefore,SlnglngamyStlCSOngthat Sapanhadneverforgotten.Uponhearingthesong,SぇkYagribhadraCQnfirmedthe spiritua11inkbetweenthemandsaidthathehadhadthesamedreamatthesametime・ 2・7・Gorampa,DSN5B,P・工2・6・Ⅰ・AmoreextensivelistofthetextsandsYStemSStudiedbY Sq)anisprovidedinibid.,fo1s.57a.4−59a.4.Themostextensiveandahthoritativelist arefoundinthebiographYOfSapanbYhisdiscipleLhopaKunkhyenRinchenPal レ仇/仙′川、(・l・・り・・・ぞ′く〟′・√?仙川′/∼・ご′、人・′川′′′〃ド・‥ゾィ・/…′小∫/.てl∴川ん′//・・′・…=− tainedintheLdm協YafJhbbshdd[Dergeed.],VOl・Ⅰ/妬fols.38b−57a). 2・8・Gorampa,D∬晩p・Ⅰ26・Ⅰ・TheSanskritequivalentofKungaGYaltshenPalSangpo isAnandadhvajairibhadra. ユタ・Gorampa,βぷⅤ鎚p.Ⅰエア・Ⅰ・ 30・Gorampa,D5N鎚,P.Ⅰ2・7・Ⅰ,andAmeshab,5d伽gdk7q7ubfChenmo(石旨72ed吻グ J/い二項・・∫、人入り∫/二√叫や−、l、・il・ 3Ⅰ・Gorampa,DSN%pp.Ⅰ2・6・4,Ⅰ2・7・4−Ⅰ28・Ⅰ・ う2・Gorampa,β∬晩p.Ⅰユ8・ 33・Ameshab,aned毎γ4theSd勿aプ拐onhmibifol・Ⅰ28・Ameshabherequotes,almost verbatim,thebiographYOfSapanfoundinthehtYmCeGltejbrihelmseh2R%Luプ頑 commentarYOfLowo KhenchenS6namLhundrup(Ⅰ4∼6−Ⅰ∼32・)・SeeD・Jackson (Ⅰ夕87),P・Ⅰ夕. 舛・Gorampa,β且Ⅴ玖pp.Ⅰユ7・4−Ⅰ28ェ 粥・Ameshab,α〝♂〟毎γげ妨ビ助々押プ彷〃乃励∽勧貼・Ⅰ68−Ⅰ‘9・ ㌔ 36・TheMongoIprlnCeK6denwashimselfa♭sentfiomhiscourtduringthesetwoYearS (124∫−Ⅰ2・46).AccordingtooneminorandpossiblyapocrYPhalworkpreservedinhis collectedworks,Sapan’ssermonsinwesternChinaapparentlYWerenOtlimitedtothe MongoIprlnCelYCOur亡inLiangTChou,fbrheissaidalsorohaveraugh【YOglSreSidenr onthepeakofWu−taiShan(SKB5:334b).Ontheseminorwritings,SeeD.Jackson (工9夕Ⅰ),p・叫Ⅰ・ 37・Saparl’snephewandsuccessor,PhakpaLodr6GYaltshen,later喝reedtosupportthe 亡ranSlator Shongt6n Dorje Gyaltshen to execute acomplete tranSlation of the Ki19/ddb7h,Which,aSthe丘rstandonlYmanualofIndianpoeticstoberenderedinit entiretYlntOTibetan,eXertedimmenseinfluenceonsubsequen亡Tibetanliterarytaste・ ItfocusedattentiononthestyleelementsdiscussedbyDa両in,eSPeCial1Ythepoe亡ical figures(Skt・dLlmkdYd,Tib・′汐dn)・ 38.G6Lots豆waSh8nnuPal,inRoerich,tranS.,朗,P.Ⅰ2,∼. 39.FifthDalaiLama(Ⅰ967),P.∼7. 40・Priortothistime,theSangphuschool,foundedbyNgokLots豆waLodenShera (IO59−ⅠIO9)andfurtherdevelopedbYChapaCh6kyiSengge(ⅠIO9−ⅠⅠ69),hademphaT sizedthes亡udYOfDharmakir亡i’sDtlmdf2dui7uSCmratherrha=heDwmdpdLdytd andhadalsodevelopedanindigenousTibetantraditionofdialectics,theforerunner totheb∫あJru・OnthelifeofNgokLots豆wa,SeeVanderKuijp(Ⅰ983),PP・42・,46,and 27Ⅰ,n・91;Onoda(工989),P・2・05;andD・Jackson(Ⅰ994a)・OnChapaandthelater Sangphutradition,SeeOnoda(Ⅰ989)(Ⅰ990),and(1992・);andvanderKuijp(Ⅰ987)・ 4Ⅰ・NolessthantWenty−fivecommentariesonSapan’s77wure仲on吻「7訪admdr恕 gteりhavebeenpennedbYadherentsoftheSakYaSChool・SeeD・Jackson(Ⅰ983a)・The samearticlerecordstheexistenceofcommentariestothe77wuYe4RedJOni7qbythe ム〟γβdJ‘丁わ/J うう 1earnedGYaltshapDarmaRinchen(Ⅰ364−Ⅰ432・,Chiefpram叫adiscipleandmonastic SuCCeSSOrtOTゝongkhapa),andbYtWOmuChlaterNyingmapascholars,JuMipham GYatSho(Ⅰ846−Ⅰ9Ⅰ2・)andGongmarRinchen(軋twentiethcentury,khenpoofthe DzongsarseminarY)・ThecommentarYOfGyaltshapDarmaRinchenhasbeenrecovered fromAmdoandreprinted;SeeDreyfus,ed・,r句協LLfbabiR卸gterrnambshad(Ⅰ994)・ 42・・OnSapan’sB2t7unCeGzicjbrihe取eh2KbdSJ頑,SeeD・Jackson(Ⅰ987),Whichin− Cludesatranslationofthework’sthirdchapter. 43・Onthebsidnrim(‘‘stagesofthedoctrine”)genre,SeeD.Jackson(Ⅰ996). 糾・Gorampa,β且V5晩pp・Ⅰユ7・トⅠユ8・う. 4∼・FifthDalaiLama(Ⅰ967),P・∼7・SeealsoThcci(Ⅰ949),P・6z6,Whotranslatesthisepi− SOdefromtheFifthDalaiLama’shistorY(Ⅰ98Ⅰ,fo1s・門b−∼6a)andgivesfurtherrefer− encesonp・680,n・う8・ 4‘.Shakabpa(Ⅰタ67),p.64庁二 47.SeePetech(Ⅰ990),P.6andn.4. 48.Petech(Ⅰ990),P.7andn.8. 49・peteCh(Ⅰ990),p.8. 50・Indeed,LamaShangatT塊alGungtanghadruledmuchofcentralTibetasasor亡Of warlord−mOnkinthelateIIOOS.(SeealsonoteI3tOthe“VowsofIndividualLibera− tion”chapterofTZ・e乃YeeCbdhinthisvolume・) 5I・OnthespecialrecognltionglVenbYtheMongoIstoChineseandTibetanBuddhist monksintheearlyI2,00S,SeePetech(Ⅰ990),PP.卜6.Ontheac亡ivitiesofTibetan lamasinHsiHsiaatthistime,SeeSperling(工994),‘‘rT盲a−miLo−tSえーbaSangs−rgYaS Grags−PaandthenngutBackgroundtoEarlYMongol−TibetanRelations・”Seealso Sey如tRuegg(Ⅰ99れpp・ . thisvolume. ∼3・Thuuken(Ⅰ984),P・449・ ∼4・Onthe“preceptor−PatrOn”Oncbodyon)relation,SeeSeYfortRuegg(Ⅰ995)・PLuSin・ ∼∼・ThentYYearSbefore,theDrigungmasterSherabJungnehadalsohadimportantlnter− nationalcontactsinthewesternandsouthwesternborderlandsofTibet. 56・Thuuken(Ⅰ984),P・449・Sapan’scontributionpossiblYlaYinadaptinganexistingUi− ghurscrlpttOCOrreSpOndtotherequlrementSOfspokenMongolian・ ∼7.Shakabpa(Ⅰ967),P.66. 58.Gorampa,β∬晩p.IZ夕.トユ. ∼9.ForfurtherdetailsofSapan’scareer,SeeGorampa,DSN5h,PP・Ⅰ2卜Ⅰ29,Ⅰ97−Ⅰ99; Thuuken(Ⅰ984),PP・Ⅰ80−Ⅰ8Ⅰ,449−4∼0;andAmeshab,anea毎γゲibe5k砂aツ彷on ゐ椚勧払k・タラ一Ⅰ70・ 60・Sapan,d上肋γわめgβ〟必必虎乃ガβ〃崩加紗必ず妨ビ乃乃β∠〝rガ♂乃∫(5Ⅹ万円24・ト2), translatedinthisvolume. ‘Ⅰ.Sapan,上肋rわ妨g助‘協必〟乃〆助成血〝瑚p.う叫.ユ(ゐ1,∼‘b). 62・ForabriefmentionofRatn豆karaiえnti,SeeW叩man(Ⅰ983)・ 65・5apan,β∫ⅠⅠⅠ由Ⅰ−6ユう・ 64・ThisfbrmulationisgivenbYSapaninhisB2t7anCeGltと鱒rihel‰巾必可吻II3,autO− COmmentary,andinhis彪‘Ciduion4u,eふ野‡himt(Tbubpd宣卸轡gSdO,P・3・3t3(ibd 7a.2).Forrelatedreferences,SeealsoD.Jackson(Ⅰ987),PP.4andI2f:,n.20. 6∼.Sapan,DSIII587−588.ForKhedrupJe’saccountofthecouncils,SeealsoLessingand ⅦもYman(Ⅰ968),pP.63−67. ・\・√上二lソ/て川・山・′り〟∴…√川●押上 う4 ‘‘・Sapan,β∫ⅠⅠⅠ∼89づ97・ 67.SeeShえkYaChokden,∫DompdgyumgyiYabtudqγebd7bstdnbcos砂iuiidmgfergyi 血椚吻in7場どα呼ゐぉ1物壷赫r一椚毎彪㌘−dg乃朗和一椚d呼肋乃,VOl・テ,貼・ IOIbfE,SuPPlementaryquestionsno・4and∼;andGorampa,DSKbPfol・62a(reDS III∼夕7). 68.ThiskindofdoctrinalcriticismwasacceptedaslegitlmatebYGamPOpainhisp sermon,the7ib呼Chos辱md6eSmd,P・Ⅰ87;CitedinD・Jackson(Ⅰ994b),P・92,n・224・ 69.Onthisdebate,SeeSapan,DSIIII66一工74;D・Jackson(Ⅰ994b),PP・3−∼andI62f:;an forreferencestootherstudies,SeeSeyfortRuegg(Ⅰ989),P・70・ 70.SeeSapan,DSIII604−609・ 7Ⅰ・ForOreOnthese丘丘eentheoriesandpracticesthatSapanrejectsinAChdrDi6;Tm− tidimゲihe77・reeCbあseeRhoton(Ⅰ98∼),PP・37ff: 7Z・Sapan,β∫ⅠⅠIzっ・ 75・Sap叫β∫ⅠⅠⅠⅠ4小 74.TheTibetanforthisquotationfromtheVy7dkkha7u加肋(PII3)is∫dbmpdgSum あがあ〝∫♂∫〃r妨〟rゐ智砂丘智d〝∂∫ビ椚∫〝痩放射明知御心M 7∼.AbhaYえkaragupta’sMunimdtdh甲kd7W(P∼299)doesrefertothethreecodesbutdoes nottreatthetantriccodesindetail.InthatworkAbhaYえkaraguptadwaYSCOnCludes allusionstotantricmaterialwithexpressionslike”thisisnottheoccasiontoexplainit・ Lookelsewhere.”PossiblyhisgreatAhnqdmd7yanCOmmentarYOnthe5kwu7aidn− tYddealswiththetantriccodesindetail.AnotherIndianteXt,the刀滋a甲yaYdk77imd(P 537∼)ofNi亨kala丘kavajra,isas5tra−COmmentarYCOnCernedwiththethreeareasof training for bodhisattvas.

1−−・、11、l、Jし−、Jl卜11川、′・丁こ・′ん川∫′‘ミ・Jんムー・′′仙小∴よ′申・′ぷ、・′/小′/〃げ√〟ソー′り1てざ(l小′・ 椚ど乃舷り〃〝妨ビ局〟廟乃肋才ゆαわ頑,5Ⅹ勘‥ユう∼一之‘∼匝鈷15・ⅠユうかⅠ84a),TB(ⅠⅠⅠ)2Ⅰ・ 77.ExactlYhowthistheorYWaSeStablishedinnakpaGyaltshen’sブ彷rul乎0智(seenote 76)remainstobeclarifiedthroughfurtherstudy・InanyCaSe,thekeYPhrasegnLugyur 轡bogc管SeemSnOttOOCCurinthework・Onfo1・Ⅰ70aTtakpaGYaltshendoes・how− ever,Statethatthepr豆timok亨aVOWS“turn”血ur)intothebodhisattvavow,andthat lateronthesearecalledkbes勿協b4)thevowsofthetantricadept・TheIndianp叩dita Vibhaticandracriticizedthisinterpretationinhisshorttract,the∫Domgsumbd郎i ?h7T7qbd(GlrLlnd4L少tjbrtbeT%YeeCbあP4∼49),arguingthattherelationship invoIvesthepredominanceofVa)raYえnavowsovertheothertwocodes,jus亡aSthelight ofstarsandmoonisoverwhelmedbYSunlight・ItwouldappearthatSapanneversaw Vibh融icandra’sJDomgsumbdph7?移althoughthetwomenwerecontemporaries andVibhdtididvisitSakYa(possiblYwith5云kYairibhadrainI2工Z).AccordingtoSakYa historians,Vibh已ticandra’sworkfo1lowedthepublicationofSapan’sDS;theformeris reproducedverbatiminGoramPa’sDSPD(pp・228ffl)andcriticizedonmanypoints・ −バ.\、t卜I11、′溝わ裾′/′ぜJJ・い川∫坤・り/Jニー・∴んぷ・′・・lJ・〟隼削・止′〟・木/・\川−′ん・・リヾ′/川■㌻〟 わぁ妙お乃椚♂乃れ5Ⅹ万∼‥Z‘4・∋・トユ7う・Z・6(ゐzzIa−ユ59a),TBzI・ 79.nakpaGYaltshen,Bya7qCbub∫emSゆd7∫dbmpagdbarsionPd∫hhka7V,isbupd7 r〝〟椚ク〟γ∂∫ろ〟ガタ吼淵4:うユ0・ヲ・ト弱4・う・Z(嶽叫9a一ユ77a),TB(ⅠⅠⅠ)巧‘・ 80.SeealsoSapan’sTbubpa宣初野gSdl作払ciaktion卯e5卸‡1hiend,thebeginningof chapter3(p.∼.3−4;fo1・IOa−b),WherehestressestheseparatenessoftheMadhYamaka andMind−OnlYtraditions・ 軋Sapan,β∫ⅠⅠ4−Ⅰ6;SeeSapan’s坤ケわ虜gq〟〟ガ♂那グ妨♂動〝∫血かか椚α魂ques− tionnos.8and9,inthisvolume. 血加ゐrめ〝 粥 82・SeeVasubandhu,Abhidbdrmdko血IVI3C−d(P5∼9Ⅰ,VOl・II5,fol・202b);GoramPa, β∬現p・ユ04(鋸・ⅠIb),etC・ 83.SeeGorampa,D5PLLp.2.05(fol.ⅠIb). 84・SeetheBodbbaiiubb5mLp.Ⅰ38.24−2・7;BodhibhadrabBbd%isatiu5dmu7u(P5362・),VOl. 10わP・Ⅰ68・∼・8;Gorampa,a肝玖p・ユ05(以・1Ib);弧dpagel(Ⅰ夕S5),pp・9タ弧dIOO,n・タ・ 8∼.Fortheselastinterpretations,SeeGorampa,DSPLLp.2,0∼(fo1s.Ⅰ2b−Ⅰ3a). 86.Gorampa,∂勒p.zo6(払1・Ⅰうわ・ 87.The”fourretinues”aremonks,nunS,1aymen,andlaYWOmen(bhik亨u,bhik亨u叫 up豆Saka,andupasika)・ 88.The“FiveFami1ies’’arethoseofthe丘ve’mthえgatasofthemandala. 89.Forthesetopics,SeeGorampa,D5PD,P・206(foLI4a−b)・ 90・Sapan’srepliestoChakLo[SiwaandLowoLots盈Waarein.SKB,VOl・5,TBcatalogue nos.夕4and夕∼. リl.ヽ岬.=−\11≠′てり′/、∴\り〃「.1〃りん/、…dし′∫け′′′′/一t、鮎′佑′、く・川′/鮎‘机Ⅶ′刷小/一‘7川 DiYeCtionsareinSKAvol.5,TBcataloguenos・29and3O,reSPeCtively・ 92.ForapreliminarYSurVeYOf5DomgsumYdbd4yecommentatorialliteraturea鮎r Sapan,SeeD・Jackson(Ⅰ983a),PP.Ⅰ2・−2・3・ 93.ThisaddendumisGorampa’sDSKbK 94.SeeLhalungpa(I986)foratranslationofGampoJenngaTfashiNamgyal㌔fimous work. 9∼.Theactualheadings丘omGorampa’soutlineofAChLirD#rentiation4ibe7’bnc Cbあarenotusedverbatiminsquarebracketsinthetranslationitselfbecause(Ⅰ)theY arecumbersome,and(2)0丘enonlYaPreViousheadingmakesitclearwhatexactlY Sapanisre丘1ting・ ちL し「) =・ 』肋γβそ炉作乃ぬ血乃ゲ妨β乃作βαあ \ Prologue ReverentレIsaLutethefeetoftheNobleMaster・ Thelion,sroaroftheproclamationoftheSugata’steaching strikesfearintoallwildbeastsofinfさriorview Ourownfiithrestsinthatmaster,unequaled, whorightlypracticesinharmony withtheEnlightenedOne’sintent・ SalutingtheftetoftheTもacherofAnimateBeings, ownerofthetreasureofallflawlessvirtues, Ishall,forthefaith鮎1whowishtopractice inaccordwiththeBuddha’swords, explainthedistinctionsthataretobemade amongthethreesetsofvows・ (二) Butastheme[ricalconstruCtionsthatgladdenthelearned aredi伍cultfortheignoranttocomprehend> Isha11putasidemetrification andexplainsothatallmightunderstand・ (ぅ) Ihaveunwaveringfaith intheteachin岳softheEnlightenedOne, butnotinthosewhopractice theBuddha’sDoctrinewrongly・ (4) 59 40 .=∧・∼イ坤′=け∴高り′・ミ/〟,‘//り−・t・rン′′h ListenwhileIdiscussthedi占tinctionstobemade amongthevowsofIndividualLiberation, theconceptlOnOfthebodhisattva’sresoIve, andtheMantrainitiation; theirritesandrespectivedisciplines; theessentialsofthewilltoenlightenment; emptlneSSthathasasitsessencecompassion; secretinstructionsonthetwoprocessesofMantrameditation; GreatSealhndbdmudhi)Gnosis; outerandinnercorrelates; andthesYStemOfthelevelsandpaths・ (∼−7) VbwsofIndividualLiberation Tbotraditionsofvows ofIndividualLiberationexist: oneofDisciples andanotheroftheGreatVthicle. (Ⅰ) [Thedurationofvows] Fromrefugethroughfu11monkhood, aDisciple’svowslastaslongashelives・ TheYarelostatdeath・ (ユ) Theeffさctsofthevows manifestinasubsequentlift[ime. Thevowsofabodhisattva,however, endureevenbeYOnddeath. Howso?Avow,Disciplesmaintain, isnonmental[i.e.,material]andissuesfrombodYandvoice; sinceithasform,thevowisrelinquishedwheneverdeathoccurs・1 0nthispointtheAbhidhLlrmako血alsoteaches: (4) “ThedisciplineofIndividualLiberationisterminated bYrenOunClngthetrainlng,bYdYing,byhavingbecomeahermaphrodite, bYSeVeranCeOftherootsofvirtue,andbYthelapseofnight・”2 Andthisstatementisauthoritative. 4Ⅰ 4ユ h一十・′′・J叩い′′∴伸〃〃/、′左//り−t(…ムヾ Abodhisattva’svow,however,isnonsubstantial becauseitorlglnateSinthemind=/ andsosurvivesaslongasthewillisunimpaired・3 This,indeed,istheimport andofal1theircommentarialtreatises. (6) Thephrase”aslongasonelives,” somesay,referstobodYandmind・4 (7) Butsuchathingwasnot theintendedmeanlngOftheBuddha norwasthattaughtinthetreatisesofthewise・ Ifitwereso,nOdi臨汀enCeWOuldexist betweenthevowsoftheDisciples,andGreatVehicle norcouldthecommonanduncommonrefugesbedividedintotwo; theirritesforconferringthevowswouldalsobethesame, aswouldtheirrulesofdiscipline・ (9) Ifmonkhooddidnotbecomelostevena丘erdeath, itwouldbeimpossibletoendvows bYrenOunClngthetralnlng orbyanYOftheothercauses・ (IO) Concernlngthis,SOmeSaY: “Eventhoughavownotendowed withtheconcept10nOfthewi11toenlightenmentmaYend, avowthatisendowedwiththatconceptlOn couldnotpossiblYbelost・”5 (ⅠⅠ) Inthatcase,thevowsoffu11monkhoodandthelike, whichareendowedwiththeconceptlOnOfthewi11toenlightenment, wouldnotbelostthroughallthecausesofvow−loss, suchasdeath,renOunCingthetraining,OrSeVeranCeOftherootsofvirtue・(Ⅰ2) Andifthatwereso, amonkwouldhavetoobservehisvows evena丘erhehasrenouncedthediscipline, 1esthismonkhoodbecomeimpaired・ (Ⅰう) lパ、さ・!汗′′〟ハん√//・ご・1州∴州 4う Evena丘erdeath,hewouldstillbeamonk: ifrebornasagod,thatwouldmeanitwouldbepossibletobeagod−mOnk・ Orifrebornasahuman,aSaninhnthewould becomeamonkwithouttheneedtoseekordination. (Ⅰ4) 托then,aninfractionweretooccurforhim, hismonasticvowswouldbeimpaired, yetitistaughtthatonewhoseekstohideanimpalrment maYnOtregainhisvows・ (巧) TheVinaYaCanOn,mOreOVer, prohibitsgod−andinfant−mOnks・ (Ⅰ‘) Again,aSthevowsofonedaYOfabstention6 takentogetherwithaconceptlOnOfthatwill wouldlastbeyondthemorrow, onewouldthenbeobliged toobservethevowsofabstentionforever, 1esttheYbecomeimpaired・ Butiftheone.daYVOWOfabstention didcometoanendatthenextdaYbreak, thiswouldcontradictthefurthercontinuance OfvowswhichYOumaintain・ (Ⅰ7) Thusthatpersonwhoteachesthatvowssurvivedeath simply lacks in canonical analysis.

1−−・、11、l、Jし−、Jl卜11川、′・丁こ・′ん川∫′‘ミ・Jんムー・′′仙小∴よ′申・′ぷ、・′/小′/〃げ√〟ソー′り1てざ(l小′・ 椚ど乃舷り〃〝妨ビ局〟廟乃肋才ゆαわ頑,5Ⅹ勘‥ユう∼一之‘∼匝鈷15・ⅠユうかⅠ84a),TB(ⅠⅠⅠ)2Ⅰ・ 77.ExactlYhowthistheorYWaSeStablishedinnakpaGyaltshen’sブ彷rul乎0智(seenote 76)remainstobeclarifiedthroughfurtherstudy・InanyCaSe,thekeYPhrasegnLugyur 轡bogc管SeemSnOttOOCCurinthework・Onfo1・Ⅰ70aTtakpaGYaltshendoes・how− ever,Statethatthepr豆timok亨aVOWS“turn”血ur)intothebodhisattvavow,andthat lateronthesearecalledkbes勿協b4)thevowsofthetantricadept・TheIndianp叩dita Vibhaticandracriticizedthisinterpretationinhisshorttract,the∫Domgsumbd郎i ?h7T7qbd(GlrLlnd4L少tjbrtbeT%YeeCbあP4∼49),arguingthattherelationship invoIvesthepredominanceofVa)raYえnavowsovertheothertwocodes,jus亡aSthelight ofstarsandmoonisoverwhelmedbYSunlight・ItwouldappearthatSapanneversaw Vibh融icandra’sJDomgsumbdph7?移althoughthetwomenwerecontemporaries andVibhdtididvisitSakYa(possiblYwith5云kYairibhadrainI2工Z).AccordingtoSakYa historians,Vibh已ticandra’sworkfo1lowedthepublicationofSapan’sDS;theformeris reproducedverbatiminGoramPa’sDSPD(pp・228ffl)andcriticizedonmanypoints・ −バ.\、t卜I11、′溝わ裾′/′ぜJJ・い川∫坤・り/Jニー・∴んぷ・′・・lJ・〟隼削・止′〟・木/・\川−′ん・・リヾ′/川■㌻〟 わぁ妙お乃椚♂乃れ5Ⅹ万∼‥Z‘4・∋・トユ7う・Z・6(ゐzzIa−ユ59a),TBzI・ 79.nakpaGYaltshen,Bya7qCbub∫emSゆd7∫dbmpagdbarsionPd∫hhka7V,isbupd7 r〝〟椚ク〟γ∂∫ろ〟ガタ吼淵4:うユ0・ヲ・ト弱4・う・Z(嶽叫9a一ユ77a),TB(ⅠⅠⅠ)巧‘・ 80.SeealsoSapan’sTbubpa宣初野gSdl作払ciaktion卯e5卸‡1hiend,thebeginningof chapter3(p.∼.3−4;fo1・IOa−b),WherehestressestheseparatenessoftheMadhYamaka andMind−OnlYtraditions・ 軋Sapan,β∫ⅠⅠ4−Ⅰ6;SeeSapan’s坤ケわ虜gq〟〟ガ♂那グ妨♂動〝∫血かか椚α魂ques− tionnos.8and9,inthisvolume. 血加ゐrめ〝 粥 82・SeeVasubandhu,Abhidbdrmdko血IVI3C−d(P5∼9Ⅰ,VOl・II5,fol・202b);GoramPa, β∬現p・ユ04(鋸・ⅠIb),etC・ 83.SeeGorampa,D5PLLp.2.05(fol.ⅠIb). 84・SeetheBodbbaiiubb5mLp.Ⅰ38.24−2・7;BodhibhadrabBbd%isatiu5dmu7u(P5362・),VOl. 10わP・Ⅰ68・∼・8;Gorampa,a肝玖p・ユ05(以・1Ib);弧dpagel(Ⅰ夕S5),pp・9タ弧dIOO,n・タ・ 8∼.Fortheselastinterpretations,SeeGorampa,DSPLLp.2,0∼(fo1s.Ⅰ2b−Ⅰ3a). 86.Gorampa,∂勒p.zo6(払1・Ⅰうわ・ 87.The”fourretinues”aremonks,nunS,1aymen,andlaYWOmen(bhik亨u,bhik亨u叫 up豆Saka,andupasika)・ 88.The“FiveFami1ies’’arethoseofthe丘ve’mthえgatasofthemandala. 89.Forthesetopics,SeeGorampa,D5PD,P・206(foLI4a−b)・ 90・Sapan’srepliestoChakLo[SiwaandLowoLots盈Waarein.SKB,VOl・5,TBcatalogue nos.夕4and夕∼. リl.ヽ岬.=−\11≠′てり′/、∴\り〃「.1〃りん/、…dし′∫け′′′′/一t、鮎′佑′、く・川′/鮎‘机Ⅶ′刷小/一‘7川 DiYeCtionsareinSKAvol.5,TBcataloguenos・29and3O,reSPeCtively・ 92.ForapreliminarYSurVeYOf5DomgsumYdbd4yecommentatorialliteraturea鮎r Sapan,SeeD・Jackson(Ⅰ983a),PP.Ⅰ2・−2・3・ 93.ThisaddendumisGorampa’sDSKbK 94.SeeLhalungpa(I986)foratranslationofGampoJenngaTfashiNamgyal㌔fimous work. 9∼.Theactualheadings丘omGorampa’soutlineofAChLirD#rentiation4ibe7’bnc Cbあarenotusedverbatiminsquarebracketsinthetranslationitselfbecause(Ⅰ)theY arecumbersome,and(2)0丘enonlYaPreViousheadingmakesitclearwhatexactlY Sapanisre丘1ting・ ちL し「) =・ 』肋γβそ炉作乃ぬ血乃ゲ妨β乃作βαあ \ Prologue ReverentレIsaLutethefeetoftheNobleMaster・ Thelion,sroaroftheproclamationoftheSugata’steaching strikesfearintoallwildbeastsofinfさriorview Ourownfiithrestsinthatmaster,unequaled, whorightlypracticesinharmony withtheEnlightenedOne’sintent・ SalutingtheftetoftheTもacherofAnimateBeings, ownerofthetreasureofallflawlessvirtues, Ishall,forthefaith鮎1whowishtopractice inaccordwiththeBuddha’swords, explainthedistinctionsthataretobemade amongthethreesetsofvows・ (二) Butastheme[ricalconstruCtionsthatgladdenthelearned aredi伍cultfortheignoranttocomprehend> Isha11putasidemetrification andexplainsothatallmightunderstand・ (ぅ) Ihaveunwaveringfaith intheteachin岳softheEnlightenedOne, butnotinthosewhopractice theBuddha’sDoctrinewrongly・ (4) 59 40 .=∧・∼イ坤′=け∴高り′・ミ/〟,‘//り−・t・rン′′h ListenwhileIdiscussthedi占tinctionstobemade amongthevowsofIndividualLiberation, theconceptlOnOfthebodhisattva’sresoIve, andtheMantrainitiation; theirritesandrespectivedisciplines; theessentialsofthewilltoenlightenment; emptlneSSthathasasitsessencecompassion; secretinstructionsonthetwoprocessesofMantrameditation; GreatSealhndbdmudhi)Gnosis; outerandinnercorrelates; andthesYStemOfthelevelsandpaths・ (∼−7) VbwsofIndividualLiberation Tbotraditionsofvows ofIndividualLiberationexist: oneofDisciples andanotheroftheGreatVthicle. (Ⅰ) [Thedurationofvows] Fromrefugethroughfu11monkhood, aDisciple’svowslastaslongashelives・ TheYarelostatdeath・ (ユ) Theeffさctsofthevows manifestinasubsequentlift[ime. Thevowsofabodhisattva,however, endureevenbeYOnddeath. Howso?Avow,Disciplesmaintain, isnonmental[i.e.,material]andissuesfrombodYandvoice; sinceithasform,thevowisrelinquishedwheneverdeathoccurs・1 0nthispointtheAbhidhLlrmako血alsoteaches: (4) “ThedisciplineofIndividualLiberationisterminated bYrenOunClngthetrainlng,bYdYing,byhavingbecomeahermaphrodite, bYSeVeranCeOftherootsofvirtue,andbYthelapseofnight・”2 Andthisstatementisauthoritative. 4Ⅰ 4ユ h一十・′′・J叩い′′∴伸〃〃/、′左//り−t(…ムヾ Abodhisattva’svow,however,isnonsubstantial becauseitorlglnateSinthemind=/ andsosurvivesaslongasthewillisunimpaired・3 This,indeed,istheimport andofal1theircommentarialtreatises. (6) Thephrase”aslongasonelives,” somesay,referstobodYandmind・4 (7) Butsuchathingwasnot theintendedmeanlngOftheBuddha norwasthattaughtinthetreatisesofthewise・ Ifitwereso,nOdi臨汀enCeWOuldexist betweenthevowsoftheDisciples,andGreatVehicle norcouldthecommonanduncommonrefugesbedividedintotwo; theirritesforconferringthevowswouldalsobethesame, aswouldtheirrulesofdiscipline・ (9) Ifmonkhooddidnotbecomelostevena丘erdeath, itwouldbeimpossibletoendvows bYrenOunClngthetralnlng orbyanYOftheothercauses・ (IO) Concernlngthis,SOmeSaY: “Eventhoughavownotendowed withtheconcept10nOfthewi11toenlightenmentmaYend, avowthatisendowedwiththatconceptlOn couldnotpossiblYbelost・”5 (ⅠⅠ) Inthatcase,thevowsoffu11monkhoodandthelike, whichareendowedwiththeconceptlOnOfthewi11toenlightenment, wouldnotbelostthroughallthecausesofvow−loss, suchasdeath,renOunCingthetraining,OrSeVeranCeOftherootsofvirtue・(Ⅰ2) Andifthatwereso, amonkwouldhavetoobservehisvows evena丘erhehasrenouncedthediscipline, 1esthismonkhoodbecomeimpaired・ (Ⅰう) lパ、さ・!汗′′〟ハん√//・ご・1州∴州 4う Evena丘erdeath,hewouldstillbeamonk: ifrebornasagod,thatwouldmeanitwouldbepossibletobeagod−mOnk・ Orifrebornasahuman,aSaninhnthewould becomeamonkwithouttheneedtoseekordination. (Ⅰ4) 托then,aninfractionweretooccurforhim, hismonasticvowswouldbeimpaired, yetitistaughtthatonewhoseekstohideanimpalrment maYnOtregainhisvows・ (巧) TheVinaYaCanOn,mOreOVer, prohibitsgod−andinfant−mOnks・ (Ⅰ‘) Again,aSthevowsofonedaYOfabstention6 takentogetherwithaconceptlOnOfthatwill wouldlastbeyondthemorrow, onewouldthenbeobliged toobservethevowsofabstentionforever, 1esttheYbecomeimpaired・ Butiftheone.daYVOWOfabstention didcometoanendatthenextdaYbreak, thiswouldcontradictthefurthercontinuance OfvowswhichYOumaintain・ (Ⅰ7) Thusthatpersonwhoteachesthatvowssurvivedeath simply lacks in canonical analysis.

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