Abd al-Malik by Chase Robinson

By Chase Robinson

'Abd al-Malik, who got here to prominence throughout the moment civil battle of early Islam, governed the Islamic empire from 692 till 705. not just did he effectively suppress uprising in the Muslim global and extend its frontiers, yet in lots of respects he based the empire itself. by means of approximately seven hundred, the different types of a brand new realm, which stretched from North Arica within the west to Iran within the east, has taken transparent form with 'Abd al-Malik at its head. This publication covers the beginnings and upward push to strength of this immensely influential caliph, in addition to his non secular rules and recommendations, his monetary, administrative and armed forces reforms, and his legacy, together with the Dome of the Rock, the oldest surviving huge development erected via Muslims.

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That ‘Abd al-Malik overcame these disadvantages says something about his and his family’s determination and resourcefulness. What follows tries to explain both. THE MARWANID BACKGROUND Early Islamic politics and institutions were conditioned by kinship ties – ties through blood, marriage and adoption – that made individuals into members of families, clans and tribes; they were especially so in the first century, when tribalism remained potent amongst the conquering Arabs. To convert to Islam initially required joining an Arab tribe; which conquest army one joined and where in a garrison city one settled depended to a large degree on one’s tribe; the office of the caliphate itself was held only by members of the Quraysh tribe.

Now there is little clear evidence that the first generations of Muslims thought that the law had to be based on Prophetic Traditions or that these Traditions existed in any number, but it is impossible to imagine a variety of Islamic belief in any period that was not informed in one way or another by a memory of who Muhammad was and what he had done. This was certainly the case for seventh- and eighth-century Muslims – and not just because the memory of the Prophet was still fresh for them. It was also because seventh-century history was so contentious and the stakes so high.

Amir led small but fearless bands of warriors against the Zubayrids, chiefly in southern Iraq. All of this said, neither the Shi‘ites nor the Kharijites imperilled Zubayrid rule, and both would challenge Marwanid power as vigorously as they had Zubayrid power. ) In short, Ibn al-Zubayr had his problems, but they were a caliph’s problems. What, besides the weakness of the Umayyad house in the 680s, explains the success of Ibn al-Zubayr? It was not just that he could pay his soldiers more than the Umayyads could pay theirs, although pay and stipend mattered a great deal.

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