By Stephen H. Hall
A synergistic method of sign integrity for high-speed electronic layout
This publication is designed to supply modern readers with an figuring out of the rising high-speed sign integrity matters which are developing roadblocks in electronic layout. Written by means of the key specialists at the topic, it leverages strategies and strategies from non-related fields corresponding to utilized physics and microwave engineering and applies them to high-speed electronic design—creating the optimum mixture among idea and useful purposes.
Following an creation to the significance of sign integrity, bankruptcy insurance contains:
- Electromagnetic basics for sign integrity
Transmission line basics
Non-ideal conductor types, together with floor roughness and frequency-dependent inductance
Frequency-dependent homes of dielectrics
Mathematical necessities of actual channels
S-parameters for electronic engineers
Non-ideal go back paths and through resonance
I/O circuits and types
Modeling and budgeting of timing jitter and noise
process research utilizing reaction floor modeling
each one bankruptcy contains many figures and various examples to aid readers relate the techniques to daily layout and concludes with difficulties for readers to check their realizing of the fabric. complex sign Integrity for High-Speed electronic Designs is appropriate as a textbook for graduate-level classes on sign integrity, for courses taught in for pro engineers, and as a reference for the high-speed electronic clothier.
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Extra info for Advanced signal integrity for high-speed digital designs
Example 2-1 If a current of 1 mA is measured flowing through a wire with a radius of 5 mm, calculate the current density. See Figure 2-6. SOLUTION Assume that the current density is constant in the cross section so that J = az J = Jz and A is the cross-sectional area of the wire. 6 Gradient The vector operator ∇, pronounced del , is shorthand for the gradient of a scalar field. In simple terms, the gradient is the space rate of change of a scalar field . In rectangular coordinates, the gradient of a function f is ∇f = ax ∂f ∂f ∂f + ay + az ∂x ∂y ∂z (2-21) Subsequently, the gradient constructs a vector field from a scalar field.
A bus). We begin by manipulating Faraday’s and Amp`ere’s laws using some useful vector identities: ∇ ×E+ ∂B =0 ∂t ∇ ×H =J + ∂D ∂t (Faraday’s law) (2-1) (Amp`ere’s law) (2-2) Taking the curl of (2-1) produces ∇ × (∇ × E) = −∇ × ∂B ∂t Since B = µr µ0 H [from (2-8)], the equation above can be written in terms of the electric field by substituting (2-2) into the right-hand part: ∇ × (∇ × E) = −∇ × ∂B ∂(∇ × µH ) ∂ =− = −µ ∂t ∂t ∂t J+ ∂D ∂t where µ = µr µ0 . If it is assumed that the region of wave propagation is source-free, the current density J is zero.
If a surface S is drawn in a region of space that includes flux lines, the number of flux lines passing through that surface is a measure of several physical quantities, such as current or power flow. Note that if (2-17) is integrated over a closed surface, the net flux will always be zero, assuming that no sources exist within the volume of the closed surface. This is because the same number of flux lines enter the volume as exit it. To illustrate the utility of the flux concept with an example, consider current flow in a wire.