Ambient Intelligence: Impact on Embedded System Design by Twan Basten, Marc Geilen, Harmke de Groot

By Twan Basten, Marc Geilen, Harmke de Groot

The rising Ambient Intelligence imaginative and prescient has the capability to essentially swap our global. This quantity is a preview into the following period of computing. It investigates the effect of Ambient Intelligence on embedded procedure layout. Combining visionary contributions with papers on contemporary advancements, it brings to gentle the demanding situations in method layout in the direction of pleasing the Ambient Intelligence promise. subject matters coated diversity from processor architectures and embedded software program to cognitive robotics and sensor networks, and from quality-of-service and energy-efficient layout to safeguard and fault tolerance.

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40 AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE: IMPACT ON EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN The core communicates with a 128K embedded SRAM; the presence of on-chip memory differentiates this product from many similar devices that require external memory chips. Besides providing a higher processor-memory bandwidth‚ this solution is consistent with a solution with minimum number of components. The third block concerns the interface towards the host. The interface is DMA-based: this allows data in the host memory to be stored in noncontiguous memory buffers‚ thus reducing the number of copy operations that the host must perform.

Finally‚ the power supply section provides energy for all other units. The power breakdown over the three sections is heavily affected by their implementation. While the sensor/ADC has limited implementation flexibility‚ the wireless interface and the computational units offer several alternatives. Intuitively‚ if the wireless interface is realized using RF communication‚ it would definitely be the largest contributor‚ possibly exceeding the whole power budget alone. For this reason‚ optical‚ laser-based communication should be preferred; to give a rough idea‚ a RF-based communication has a transmission efficiency around whereas laser-based communication is around 1 nJ/bit [33].

Power consumption is indeed viewed as one of the most significant limitation to current evolutionary trends in microprocessor design [18]. Lowering power supply does not solve the problem‚ because design complexity and clock speed scale faster‚ and their compound effect swamps the benefits given by voltage scaling. Average power consumption‚ routinely exceeding 100 Watts‚ is just one facet of the problem. Power density and power delivery are even more serious short-term challenges. 5V‚ needs a whooping 100A of current‚ to be delivered on a silicon surface smaller than a post stamp.

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