By Paul R. Gray
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Extra resources for Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits
Following a similar procedure, the Early voltage can be defined as 44 Chapter 1 Models for Integrated-Circuit Active Devices and thus For MOS transistors, a commonly used parameter for the characterization of channellength modulation is the reciprocal of the Early voltage, As in the bipolar case, the large-signal properties of the transistor can be approximated by assuming that A and VA are constants, independent of the bias conditions. 157) to In practical MOS transistors, variation of Xd with voltage is complicated by the fact that the field distribution in the drain depletion region is not one-dimensional.
The total collector current in Fig. 1 . 90), and the small-signal analysis is valid. In practice, if AVBE is less than 10 mV, the small-signal analysis is accurate within about 10 percent. 17b shows that the change in base-emitter voltage AVBE = vi has caused a change AQ, = q, in the minority-carrier charge in the base. By charge-neutrality requirements, there is an equal change AQh = qh in the majority-carrier charge in the base. Since majority carriers are supplied by the base lead, the application of voltage vi requires the supply of charge qh to the base, and the device has an apparent input capacitance The value of Cb can be related to fundamental device parameters as follows.
With the collector-base junction forward biased and emitting carriers into the base and the emitter-base junction reverse biased and collecting carriers). 8. An inverse current gain PR is also defined and has typical values 1 to 5. This is the current gain of the transistor when operated inverted and is much lower than PF because the device geometry and doping densities are designed to maximize PF. The inverse-active region of device operation occurs for VCE negative in an n p n transistor and is shown in Fig.