By Robert K. Lindsay, etc.
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Extra resources for Applications of Artificial Intelligence for Organic Chemistry: The Dendral Project (McGraw-Hill advanced computer science series)
When such problem-state descriptors exist, particular features of the initial states might be associated for some reason with particular features of the goal states for problems of interest. Statistically guided search attempts to capitalize on this situation, either by employing known associations or searching for some. Hill climbing Hill-climbing methods (1) select a point in the space, (2) search in the local area of that point for the direction that maximizes a gradient, and (3) move in the direction of maximum gradient to a new point where the process is repeated.
This period has been one of great change in computer technology and in the attitudes, aspirations, and activities of the research community working on problems of artificial intelligence. To place DENDRAL in the context of its parent discipline so that we may see how it has drawn from and contributed to this development, we first look at the short history of AI. The major goal of AI research is a productive understanding of the processesof intelligent thought. The major method of AI distinguishes this discipline from others with similar goals.
2) where S = sum of valences of multivalent atoms K = number of multivalent atoms U = degree of unsaturation (of a superatompot) For the example, CgNUz , there are 17 free valences. *The DENDRAL generator treats double bonds as rings and triple bonds as two-ring structures. See page 12. 3The number of partitions of n indistinguishable objects for n = 5, 10, and 20 is 7, 42, and 627, respectively. The number of partitions is asymptotic to [4n(3)‘/*] -’ exp [n(2n/3)‘/*]. THE DENDRAL GENERATOR 45 Table 4-1 Possible partitions of CloNU2 Ring Rim superatompot superatompot Remainingpot #2 #I Ring Ring superatompot superatompot Remainingpot #l #2 C3NU C2NU CNU csu c2 c6u c2 c7u c2 c2u c3 c3fJ c3 c4u c3 csu c3 c6u c3 czu c4 c3u c4 c4u c4 csu c4 c2u c5 c3u c5 c4u c5 C2NU CNU c2u c6 c3u c6 CNU c2u c7 c8u c2u c7u c3u c6u c4u csu c5u c7u c7u c2u c3u C c2 c3 c4 C5 c6 c7 csw C4NU C3NU C2NU CNU c8 CNU2 c9 c9u2 N CN cSu2 C2N c7u2 C3N c6u2 C4N ClOU2 csu2 GN c4u2 C6N c3u2 C7N c2u2 CSN CsNU C7NU CeNU C5NU C4NU C3NU C2NU c2u c3u c4u GU C4NU C3NU C2NU CNU C3NU C2NU CNU N N N N c6u c8u c6u CNU c9u csu c4u CN CN CN C7NU c6u c2u C2N c2u c5u c3u C2N c4u c4u C2N csu c2u C3N c4u c3u C3N c4u c3u c2u c3u c3u c2u C5N c2u c2u C6N cS” C C C C C C C c6m c2u c2 CSN c3u c2 c4u c2 CeNU CSNU C4NU C3NU C2NU CNU C4NU c3u c4u csu c6u c7u C4N .