By Roos Haer
This publication examines even if changes within the organizational constitution of armed teams form styles of human rights violations in civil wars.
Since the top of global battle II, civil wars were characterised through tremendous excessive numbers of civilian casualties. even if, the precise quantity of civilian soreness varies throughout time, clash, and geographic quarter. lately, a brand new strand of analysis has emerged, basically interested in learning the dynamics underlying the adaptation in civilian abuse by means of studying the features of the armed teams and the way those features impact the armed teams’ behaviour in the direction of the civilian inhabitants.
With connection with principal-agent thought and knowledge at the organizational constitution of greater than 70 armed teams energetic world wide from 1989 onwards, the author’s research capabilities either at the point of the armed team and at the point of the person through own interviews with warring parties.
Offering a special perception into how elements corresponding to recruitment equipment, hierarchy and organizational dedication could impact the possibility of civilian abuse by way of opponents, this publication may be of a lot curiosity to scholars of political violence, civil wars, struggle and clash stories, safety experiences and IR in general.
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Additional resources for Armed Group Structure and Violence in Civil Wars: The Organizational Dynamics of Civilian Killing
However, applications of the principal–agent theory to the study of armed groups and their behavior towards the civilian population almost do not exist (Johnson 2008). An important exception forms the study conducted by Gates (2002). Although only limitedly focused on the internal dynamics of armed forces, Gates (2002) developed a model to demonstrate that geography, ethnicity, and ideology play an important role in determining military success, deterring defection within the rebel group, and shaping recruitment.
In other words, the principal does not receive any benefits in victimizing the civilian population. Butler et al. , the principal) lose control over their security forces and that this loss of control increases the number of incidences of sexual violence perpetrated by out-of-control agents. In other words, they assume that principals do not have the intention to victimize civilians and that their agents go on a rampage as soon as they realize that they are not controlled. However, recent literature on genocide and mass killing offers a compelling alternative view.
On the other hand, they have much to lose – rebellious behavior may be quite costly (the physical adversity and risk of death inherent to joining an armed group) (Muller and Opp 1986). At the same time, the successful outcome of a revolt by the armed group is a low-probability event (Kalyvas and Kocher 2007). Why, therefore, should agents pay a cost rather than free ride? Such a “free rider” tendency can jeopardize the supply of collective goods and people are likely to obtain a less preferred outcome than if they all behave irrationally and participate (Muller and Opp 1986; Frohlich and Oppenheimer 1970: 105).