By Simon Tung, Bernard Kinker, Mathias Woydt
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Additional resources for Automotive Lubricant Testing and Advanced Additive Development (ASTM special technical publication 1501)
Verify that speed was within a tolerance of 240± 5 r / min during calibration, when CL250 is measured at −20° C and all subsequent checks. 3. Use all reference oils for a particular test temperature when calibrating. Run the oils in duplicate during the calibration. One example for the −25° C test temperature would be to run the following reference oils: CL120, CL140, CL160, CL190, CL220, CL250, CL280, CL320, and CL380 as two consecutive sample sets. An alternative approach would be to run all the reference oils between CL120 and CL320 as a single set, which adds CL130, CL150, CL170, CL200, CL240, CL260, CL300, CL340, and CL420.
From the end of the 1960s until now, the specific loading has increased from ϳ35 000 kW/ km/ L2 to Ͼ 440 000 kW/ km/ L2 ͑kW power/km drain/litre of displacement͒, which will further increase by heavily supercharged diesel passenger car engines reaching 85 kW/ L and upwards in the future. General Context The drain intervals in passenger cars have increased in the past 35 years from ϳ3000– 5000 km up to 50 000 km. The associated reduction in oil consumption and drained oil volume was compensated for by much more higher prices for the formulations and a steady-state increase of the total vehicle fleet stabilizing today at ϳ65 % of the population in G7 countries.
Comparing the open squares and triangles in Fig. 13 shows a visual pattern indicating a lack of bias between instrument models for the population of data tested. The boundaries for repeatability, r, and reproducibility, R, are shown in Fig. 13. The lines were drawn as if making the comparison between a reference value and another value, where the reference value was the CCS 5 measurement. The variance between the CCS-2100 and CCS-5 appears to increase as the test temperature decreases. The data at −30 and −35° C have a much larger spread than that at the other temperatures.