By Subrata Mukherjee

------------------Description-------------------- Boundary tools: parts, Contours, and Nodes provides the result of state-of-the-art study in boundary-based mesh-free tools. those equipment mix the dimensionality benefit of the boundary elemen

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This idea is ﬁrst illustrated in the context of two basic cases : the interior Dirichlet and Neumann problems. Mixed boundary conditions are considered thereafter. 1 Problem 1 : Displacement Boundary Conditions Solve the Navier-Cauchy equations: (λ + µ)∇(∇ · u) + µ∇2 u = 0 in B subject to the boundary conditions: u = f on ∂B This problem is analogous to the Dirichlet problem of potential theory. Under suitable restrictions on the domain, it is possible to prove existence and uniqueness of a solution to this BVP [46].

In general, at a local level, on a particular element, the actual error will depend on the boundary conditions. In mixed boundary value problems, for instance, the traction may be prescribed in the x1 -direction and the displacement in the x2 -direction at a boundary point. The errors are, therefore, in the displacement in the x1 -direction, and in the traction in the x2 -direction. Ideally, the traction residual-based element error indicator will capture the L2 norm of these errors on an element, even for mixed boundary value problems.

25)). 50)) is put to a diﬀerent, and novel use. 50) is O(1/r2 (ξ, y)) as ˆ . Therefore, as y → x ˆ, ξ → y, whereas {ui (y) − ui (ˆ x)} is O(r(ˆ x, y)) as y → x x)}, which is O(r(ˆ x, y)/r2 (ξ, y)), → 0 ! 49)) can be used to easily and accurately evaluate the displacement components uk (ξ) for ξ ∈ B close to ∂B. This idea is the main contribution of [104]. 50)) is also valid in this ˆ can be chosen as any point on ∂B when ξ is far from case. (The target point x ∂B). 50)) universally for all points ξ ∈ B.