By Colin OConnor,Peter A Shaw,NetLibrary, Inc.
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Extra info for Bridge loads: an international perspective
The rainfall caused land slips over 50% of the upper catchment. 5 m/s). The result is shown in Fig. 19. The flood bypassed the bridge on the near-side, leaving the debris wall packed against the upstream side (to the right in the photograph). Severe damage was done to the bridge, with two of the spans carried downstream. The case serves as a reminder of the major forces that may be applied to a bridge by a stream in flood. In some cases, the piers of a bridge, if inclined in plan to the flow, may act as an aerofoil, generating horizontal forces equivalent to both lift and drag.
22. These photographs are taken from a test report (by O’Connor) dated 11 September 1962, on mild steel similar to that used in one of two bridges that were being fabricated at the time of the Kings Bridge collapse (10 July 1962). 22 (a) shows the results of two Tipper tests, both on 38 mm thick material, tested at 20°C. The one on the right is of the material as supplied, and shows the cross section after fracture; the notches can be seen at both sides of the specimen; the fracture would be described as ‘crystalline’.
The stress to cause failure, calculated on the uncracked area, was remarkably constant, ranging from 350 to 430 MPa, for both temperatures. The apparent applied stress, or stress on the gross cross-section, was somewhat more. For comparison, the ultimate stress in a standard tension test was 463 MPa. Fatigue performance is commonly represented on a graph of stress range (S) against the number of cycles to failure (n) such as those shown in Fig. 24. These curves include those for (a) a typical rolled beam, (b) a welded girder, and (c) a rolled beam with cover plates, the stress being calculated at the cover plate end; they are taken from Fisher (1977:19).