By A.P.S. Selvadurai
This two-volume paintings specializes in partial differential equations (PDEs) with vital functions in mechanical and civil engineering, emphasizing mathematical correctness, research, and verification of suggestions. The presentation comprises a dialogue of appropriate PDE functions, its derivation, and the formula of constant boundary stipulations.
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FLOOD CONTROL MEASURES Levees are linear ridges alongside river channels. Natural levees are formed by bank overflow and rapid deposition, and may build up to channel a river at a level above the main floodplain; China’s Yellow River is 6 m above its floodplain for over 500 km. Artificial levees are earth (or concrete faced) embankments built to prevent floodplain inundation. They must be continuous— roads must go over them or through floodgates; the Mississippi levees are 10 m high and >1000 km long.
Climate causes increased frost shatter and mechanical weathering, and reduced chemical weathering. This is the downslope movement of saturated debris—a type of wet soil creep moving about 1 metre per year. It can occur on any saturated slope, but is most common in the summer-thawed active layer of periglacial slopes which cannot drain through the deeper permafrost. Head is unsorted, soliflucted debris; it may appear similar to glacial till, but is formed entirely of local upslope material. Head can flow by plastic deformation, but is typically well sheared, with basal, intermediate and circular slip surfaces.
GLACIAL DEPOSITION Debris of all sizes is picked up and transported by glaciers, and then dumped at glacier edges, along their bases, or mostly in terminal melt zones. Till or boulder clay: general terms for glacial debris. Moraines: morphological units of glacial till—layers, mounds, ridges or any shape of deposit on, or left behind by, a glacier. Sheet moraines: extensive till blankets of variable thickness; typically hummocky surfaces may be streamlined into drumlin landscapes. Valley moraines: till ridges along or across glaciers or left behind in glaciated valleys: • lateral moraines: along glacier edges, fed by debris from higher slopes; • medial moraines: coalesced lateral moraines where glaciers converge (not so common); • terminal, end or retreat moraines: till banks across valleys where ice melting reaches maximum at the glacier snouts; a sequence may be left up a valley by a glacier retreating irregularly.