By Robert E. Kimmerling, Federal Highway Administration
This ebook is FHWA's basic reference of steered layout and procurement systems for shallow foundations. It offers state-of-the-practice information at the layout of shallow origin help of road bridges. the data is meant to be sensible in nature, and to specially motivate the cost effective use of shallow foundations relating structural fills. To the best volume attainable, the record coalesces the study, improvement and alertness of shallow origin help for transportation buildings over the past numerous a long time. precise layout examples are supplied for shallow foundations in different bridge aid functions in response to either provider Load layout (Appendix B) and cargo and Resistance issue layout (Appendix C) methodologies. advice is additionally supplied for shallow starting place functions for minor buildings and structures linked to transportation tasks.
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Extra info for Shallow Foundations
The exploration and testing programs for foundations supporting less critical structures will be less extensive than those for critical structures such as bridges, elevated highways or official buildings, etc. The following program will produce the minimum foundation data for a typical structure site. Soft ground conditions may require undisturbed sample explorations or in situ testing. 1. As a minimum, advance one drill hole at each pier or abutment that measures over 9 m (30 ft) in length. The drill hole pattern should be staggered at the opposite ends of adjacent footings.
This is an undrained loading condition. Therefore, both the bearing capacity of such soils and the potential for short- and long-term settlement must be evaluated as part of the preliminary design process when considering support of a shallow foundation on cohesive soils. Because cohesive soils can experience large increases and decreases in volume as a result of changes in water content, bridge foundations should not be supported on embankments constructed of such materials. Expansive clays in natural conditions can also experience large volume changes.
However, the readout of data is essentially continuous, so definition of soil layers is better than drilling and split-spoon sampling alone. 2. Estimate the boring depth from existing data obtained during the terrain reconnaissance phases in conjunction with minimum requirements that are established to help ensure that the borings are not terminated too soon or in a soft soil layer. 5), unless rock is encountered first. 3 m (1 foot) on the sample spoon has been achieved for 6 continuous meters (20 feet) of drilling, or • The boring shall extend 3 m (10 feet) into rock having an average recovery of 50 percent or greater.