## The Foundation Engineering Handbook by Gunaratne Manjriker

By Gunaratne Manjriker

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2002, Foundation Analysis and Design, McGraw-Hill, New York. With permission. 6, where the author, based on his experience, has extracted approximate values from Bowles (1995) for most common soil types. 1 Elastic Properties and In Situ Test Parameters The most commonly used in situ tests that can be used to determine elastic properties of soil are the SPT and CPT tests (discussed in Chapter 2). 7. 0 Es=(6–30)qc Sand (overconsolidated) Gravelly sand Es=1,200(N+6) =600(N+6) N<15 =600(N+6)+2,000 N>15 Clayey sand Es=320(N+15) Es=(3–6)q c Silts, sandy silt, or clayey silt Es=(1−2)qc Soft clay or clayey silt Es=(3−8)qc *Es (elastic modulus) for SPT (Standard penetration test) and units q c for CPT (Cone penetration test).

13, the unconfined compression strength is determined to be 320 kPa. 11), the undrained strength of the clay is estimated to be 160 kPa. 12 Mohr circle plot for failure stress condition in unconfined compression test. 5 Compressibility and Settlement Soils, like any other material, deform under loads. Hence, even if the condition of structural integrity or bearing capacity of a foundation is satisfied, the ground supporting the structure can undergo compression, leading to structural settlement.

Secondary compression concepts introduced later in this chapter are needed to estimate this prolonged secondary settlement. 1 Estimation of Immediate Settlement in Soils The most commonly adopted analytical methods for immediate settlement evaluation in soils are based on the elastic theory. However, one must realize that reliable estimates of elastic moduli and Poisson ratio values for soils are not easily obtained. This is mainly because of the sampling difficulty and, particularly, the dependency of the elastic modulus on the stress state.